انقلاب صنعتیِ غرب، سبب شد صنایع دستی ایران بهتدریج از میدان رقابت خارج شود. این تغییر وضعیت یکسان نبود. فلزکاری با ویژگیهای متنوع، در رویارویی با پدیدة انقلاب صنعتی بهصورت یکسان تحت تأثیر قرار نگرفت. پرسش پژوهش حاضر این است که تحولات صنعتی اروپا سبب ایجاد تغییرات در کدامیک از ویژگیهای تزیینی، فرمی، تکنیکی و ساختاری فلزکاری سنتی ایران شده است؟ شناخت شاخصههای اصیلِ فلزکاری ایران و تمیز آن از هنرصنعت غرب، ضرورت تحقیق را دوچندان میکند. هدف تحقیق شناخت مؤلفههای تأثیرگذار و احیای شاخصههای کمتوان شدة فلزکاری سنتی و رقابت مجدد در این حوزه است. روش گردآوری دادهها تصاویر موجود در کتابها و اسناد و بررسی آثار موزهها و مجموعههای خصوصی بود. روش تحقیق نیز مطالعه و وصف مدارک قبل و بعد از دورة ایجاد تحول (دورة ناصرالدینشاه به بعد) از نقطه نظر جنس، تزیین، مهارتهای هنری، نقش و نگارها و غیره بود. مطالعات نتیجه منجر به این شد که فلزکاریِ ایران قبل از تحولات صنعتی غرب، با تغییراتی در دورة بعد از انقلاب صنعتی نیز ادامه داشته است. این تغییرات بیشتر بر روی کاربرد، جنس و تنوع تولیدِ محصولات فلزی گذشته ایجاد شده، به این ترتیب که تزیین، نقش و کارکرد آنها، و نهایتاً بازار کار و اقتصاد صنایع دستی را دچار ضعف کرده است. ضمن اینکه در مواردی به تنوع ساخت و پرداخت صنایع دستی فلزی، بیش از پیش کمک کرده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Comparative Observation to Iran’s Metalwork from 16th century to 20th century
At the same time as the industrial revolution and the production of factory products in the West, handicrafts gradually got out from the competition and went to the sideline. Due to the exclusive features of each of the handicraft’s fields this conversion of situation was not the same. Metalwork with its specific features has also gone through the ups and downs. In the present research these questions are considered: Has the European industrial developments been the cause of changes in the craft industry in Iran? And if the first question proved, on which features of the decorative, formal, technical and structural features of traditional Iranian metalwork have influenced? The aim of this study is understanding Influential components on Iranian handicrafts especially in metalwork and utilizing the results of the research to revive the low-powered characteristics of traditional metalworking and to compete again in this area. The research methodology is also based on collecting and reviewing the data and samples in the important periods before and after this important historical and documentary event and analyzing them with written texts and resources simultaneously. Data studies have led to the conclusion that Iran's metalworking prior to the industrial changes of the West has continued with changes since the Industrial Revolution. These changes have more to do with the application, material, color and etc.
Simultaneously with the Industrial Revolution and the production of factory products in the West, as well as the creation of Western styles, methods and schools of art and the vast changes that took place in the definition and interpretation of art compared to the past, traditional arts and handicrafts gradually out of competition. And went to the margins. Many of these products, which were once the main and most important tools and equipment used by the people and the court, became cultural and traditional goods during the 16 to 20 and 21centuries AD and became more of a gift for gifts, treasures and cultural artifacts. They became the focus for Iranians and foreign travelers. Iranian metalworking as one of the most important industries with characteristics such as material, application, tools and methods of construction, various decorations, patterns, inscriptions, themes and concepts of patterns, forms, etc. were not equally affected in the face of the industrial revolution. Some features of metalworking underwent fundamental changes and some features did not change much. Some became very weak, some rode in the eric of these developments, and some continued to live with changes. were not equally affected in the face of the industrial revolution. Some features of metalworking underwent fundamental changes and some features did not change much. In general, from the late Safavid period to the middle of the Qajar period and the beginning of the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah (1848-1895 ) AD, the import of industrial and artistic products of the West to Iran was less and from the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah, the relationship between Iran and the West became wider and wider. And led to travel and reciprocal travel.
The concern of the present article was that the industrial developments and the corresponding introduction of various products of factories and also the change of deep attitude towards art in comparison with the past in Europe have caused changes in which of the decorative, formal, technical and structural features of traditional Iranian metalwork. ? What is the situation of these possible changes in Iran's metalworking position compared to the past?
A general view of a variety of past metal products reinforced the assumption that all disciplines and products related to metalworking, including construction, shape, decoration, motifs, subject matter and concepts of motifs and applications gradually and after the Industrial Revolution Has been influenced by the industrial and artistic developments of the West, This effect has not caused complete oblivion or transformation of the works and the products produced, with traditional concepts and functions and the type of construction and to some extent the decoration in the Western way has continued its life.
Knowing the original characteristics of Iranian metalwork and its distinction from the characteristics of Western art doubles the need for research. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to identify the hypertextual effects of the West on Iranian metalworking to revive the indigenous and traditional characteristics of this broad and long-standing field and re-compete in this field.
The research method was to study and describe the documents before and after the period of transformation (before and after the period of Naser al-Din Shah) in Iranian metalwork in terms of material, decoration, artistic skills, engravings, etc. that can be based on the information obtained. Recognized the originality or effectiveness of the work. Metal works that could be studied in written sources, museums and private collections inside and outside Iran were very numerous and highly scattered this situation made them difficult to access and beyond the size of an article. For this reason, by using the non-probabilistic and random selection method, from the multitude of metal utensils, objects and tools, 300 works belonging to the pre-transformation period and 300 works belonging to the post-transformation period were selected. Since the features associated with metalworking were varied, including construction, polishing, decoration, engraving, inscriptions, and the like,To describe and analyze each of them, the following options were considered: role, form, application, line, gender, technique, subject matter and product type. Each of these options, due to its breadth and variety, was divided into sub-options and sub-options.. For example, the "decorations" variable included more detailed options such as embossing, plating, wire work, carving, machining.
Studying 600 metal works with structures, forms, ornaments, patterns and other features produced results almost in line with the hypotheses. Circular-shaped works, from the middle of the Qajar period onwards, have become much more diverse due to the use of new tools, and despite the continuation of past methods, industrial casting has affected the production of more metal products in the second Qajar period.The diverse uses of former metalwork, especially government objects and jewelry, have continued into the new era, but their general use has declined ( Figure 1, 9-12).The writing on the metal works in the first period, with the greater use of the third line in the second period, shows the construction of the necessary equipment for mourning, taziyeh ceremonies and other religious performances (Figure 4, 18- 21). Which includes all kinds of signs, boilers, signs, gauges and the like. Reduction of metals such as bronze in the new period compared to the previous period, and the use of new metals such as Warsaw, the use of iron and gold in the second period compared to the previous one, explains the excessive interest of the later Qajar kings and after them in collecting jewelry and using iron in new constructions (Figure 5). The prominent presence of decorations on coatings, machine lathes, tapestries and enamels, while showing more variety of colors in the second Qajar period onwards, is a reason for using new techniques and sometimes foreign orders for metal works (Figure 6, 13- 15). Also, in relation to the subjects used, it can be said that the change in the use of works from the military and folklore of the pre-transformation period to decorative applications determines the gradual functional shift of metalworking in the two periods before and after the Industrial Revolution (Figure 7, 16- 17). In response to the second question: "What is the situation of these possible changes in Iran's metalworking position compared to the past?" It can be answered that Iran's metalworking continued before the industrial developments in the West, with changes in the period after the Industrial Revolution.