تأملی بر مسئله شهر و شهرنشینی در دورة هخامنشی در فارس مرکزی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه باستان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 استادیار گروه باستان شناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

چکیده

مسئله شهر و شهرنشینی ازنظرگاه­ های گوناگون در هر یک از حوزه­ های انسان­ شناسی، جامعه ­شناسی و باستان­ شناسی قابل موشکافی است. این مقاله با تکیه‌بر یکی از این مبانی نظری مبنی بر ارتباط مستقیم نوع بافت سیاسی‌ـ‌اجتماعی جامعه با شهر و فرم آن بحث می‌کند که زمینه شکل‌گیری شهر و رشد شهرنشینی در فارس مرکزی در دورة هخامنشی علی‌رغم ظرفیت ­های زیست ­محیطی مناسب آن به دلیل ساختار اجتماعی فارس مرکزی، دستگاه سیاسی سیار هخامنشی و بافت جمعیتی دامدار منطقه فراهم نشده بود. مدارک موجود نشان می‌دهد رشد و شکوفایی منطقة فارس مرکزی متعاقب تأسیس شاهنشاهی هخامنشی به‌رغم عملیات ساختمانی بی‌سابقه در تخت جمشید اساساً در راستای ایجاد شهر و شکل‌گیری ساختار شهرنشینی نبوده است. نتایج تحقیقات میدانی یک دهة اخیر در دشت تخت‌جمشید نیز آشکار می‌سازد که برخلاف تصور کاوشگران این مکان، نه‌ تنها اطلاق عنوان شهر بر این آثار هنوز زود است، بلکه وجود یک چشم‌انداز شهری را بیش‌ازپیش به چالش می‌کشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Some Observations on the Question of Urbanism in the Central Fars in the Achaemenid Period

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Bahadori 1
  • HamidReza Valipour 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Shahid Beheshti, Tehran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Shahid Beheshti, Tehran
چکیده [English]

Urbanism as a comprehensive research subject could be explored from various anthropological, social and archaeological points of view. This paper, based on one of these theoretical approaches suggesting a direct relationship between the city form and socio-political structure, argues against recent discussions on the urbanization nature of Central Fars during the Achaemenid period. The cultural developments at this region have not been led to establishment of urbanization because of nomadic nature of Achaemenid king, his itinerant court and strong pastoral aspects of population. A survey of current evidence shows that the growth following the foundation of Achaemenid Empire and beginning of building operation at Persepolis was so ephemeral that soon stopped before reaching to the stage of urbanization. The results of recent archaeological investigations at the Persepolis plain reveal that the interpretation of newly discovered material as remains of a city, as excavators claim, is problematic and there is no clear indication of an urban landscape in the region during the Achaemenid period.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Achaemenid
  • Central Fars
  • Persepolis
  • urbanization
  • Socio-Political Structure
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