باستان شناسی منطقه قره داغ؛ گزارش مقدماتی بررسی محوطه های دوران مفرغ و آهن شهرستان ورزقان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه باستان شناسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه باستان شناسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه باستان شناسی دانشگاه استانبول، استانبول، ترکیه

10.22059/jarcs.2019.284880.142749

چکیده

فعالیت­ های باستان­ شناختی منطقه قره­داغ (ارسباران) با هدف ترسیم چشم‌انداز بلندمدت علمی و درک جایگاه باستان­ شناسی منطقه، در جهت تبیین اوضاع سیاسی- اجتماعی و ارزیابی تحولات و جریانات فرهنگی و شناسایی مسیرهای ارتباطی شمال آذربایجان در دوره­های مفرغ و آهن، با اتکا بر روش‌های میدانی انجام می­ گیرد. اولین فصل این پروژه در سال 1396 به شناسایی محوطه­های مفرغ و آهن شهرستان ورزقان اختصاص یافت. منطقه مورد بررسی دارای وسعت تقریبی 2368 کیلومترمربع بوده و در منتهی ­الیه غربی منطقه قره­ داغ قرار دارد. با نظر به توپوگرافی منطقه، دره ­های میان­ کوهی غرب ورزقان دروازه ورود به قره ­داغ شمرده‌شده و به عبارتی گذرگاه طبیعی غرب به شرق محسوب می­ گردد که با توجه به مسیر حک کتیبه ­های اورارتویی، به نظر هجوم اورارتوها در قرن هشتم ق.م به منطقه نیز از این گذرگاه صورت گرفته است. لذا به‌روشنی آشکار است که منطقه از نظر پتانسیل­ های محیطی، جغرافیایی و امنیتی نیز قابل‌توجه و دارای اهمیت است. طی این بررسی 143 محوطه از دوران مفرغ قدیم تا آهن III در منطقه شناسایی گردید که از اهداف مهم این بررسی می­ توان به ثبت تحولات در گذر از هر دوره به دوره دیگر در رابطه با نوسانات جمعیتی، الگوی مکان­گزینی و استقرار، شیوه معیشت و روش تدفین اشاره کرد. طبق این شواهد، تعداد استقرارها در دوره مفرغ قدیم در منطقه بسیار محدود و ضعیف است. با فروپاشی جوامع نیمه کشاورز دوران مفرغ قدیم، زندگی عشایری به‌صورت محدود در دوره مفرغ میانی شکل می­ گیرد. در اواخر دوره مفرغ میانی، مجدداً با شکل­ گیری جوامع یکجانشین، شاهد افزایش جمعیت منطقه و به وجود آمدن پیچیدگی­ های اجتماعی طی دوره مفرغ جدید تا آهن II هستیم که در پی آن، یک نوع جامعه طبقاتی اولیه، تحت مدیریت حاکمان کوچک محلی شکل می­ گیرد. در نهایت طبق منابع مکتوب در منطقه، با هجوم قدرت­ های نظامی همسایه (اورارتوها) به منطقه، جوامع دوره آهن فروپاشیده و در ظاهر تعداد محوطه­ ها کاهش می­ یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Archaeology of Qara Dagh: Preliminary Report of the Survey of the Bronze and Iron Age Sites in Varzeqan Region (Iranian Azerbaijan)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Naseri Someeh 1
  • Alireza Hejebri Nobari 2
  • Erkan Konyar 3
1 Ph.D. in Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Archaeology. Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor in Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Archaeology, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor in Istanbul University, Department of Ancient History, Istanbul, Turkey.
چکیده [English]

Archaeological studies in the region of Qara Dagh (or Arasbaran) are of particular importance due to the fact that this region is located in the area between East-West (Iranian) Azerbaijan and Iran-Anatolian Plateau, as well as north to south of Caucasus-Iran. Archaeological activities in Qara Dagh are often aimed at conducting systematic research to explain the socio-political situations, investigate the cultural-technological currents and changes, explore the connecting and commercial routes of Northern region of Azerbaijan during the Bronze and Iron ages, outline the long-term scientific landscape, and also to understand the archaeological status of the region, relying on field and laboratory methods. The first season of this project, in 2017, dealt with identification of the Bronze and Iron Age sites of Varzeqan city. During the present survey, have been recorded 143 sites from the early Bronze Age to the Iron Age III in the region; and from the most important results of this survey, the changes recorded during the transitions from each period to the next period in relation to demographic changes, settlement patterns and location selecting, evaluating the landscape and natural resources in order to be aware of food networks and economic systems, studying the ecology of the region, livelihood approaches and burial methods can be mentioned. According to this evidence, settlements have been very limited in the region during the early Bronze Age. With the collapse of semi-farmer communities in the early Bronze Age, nomadic life was limitedly formed in the middle of the Bronze Age. In the late of Middle Bronze Age, once again, with the formation of sedentary communities, an increase in the population of the region and the emergence of social complexities are seen during the late Bronze Age to the Iron Age II, followed by the establishment of a primitive class society which was formed under the administration of local small rulers

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Qara Dagh
  • Varzeqan
  • Archaeological Survey
  • Bronze Age
  • Iron Age
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