واکاوی ایدئولوژی مرتبط با قدرت سلطنتی در نظامهای پادشاهی آشور نو و هخامنشی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه باستان شناسی دانشکاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری باستان شناسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

یکی از ویژگی­ های بنیادین حکومت­ های باستان که در پیوند با قدرت قرار داشت، ایدئولوژی بود و حکومت­ های آشور نو و هخامنشی نیز از این قاعده مستثنی نبوده ­اند. اگر به مدارک و شواهد نوشتاری و تصویری بافت ­های سلطنتی آشور نو و هخامنشی نگاهی بیندازیم، ایدئولوژی در متن و بطن این دو حکومت قرار داشته است. اینکه آنها با مردم و اقوام زیردست و فرمانبردار خود چگونه رفتار می ­کردند؟، مشارکت و همکاری آنها با این حکومت­ ها چگونه بوده است؟، پیوند شاهان با خدا یا خدایان خود برای توجیه اقداماتشان چگونه بود؟، ویژگی­ های شاه نیرومند و توانمند در این مدارک و تصاویر چگونه شرح داده است؟، سلطه­ طلبی و دیدگاه چیرگی بر همه جهان و اقوام در نگاه آنها چه ویژگی­ هایی داشت و با چه روش­ هایی انجام گرفته است؟ اینها پرسش­ هایی هستند که این پژوهش درصدد پاسخگویی به آنها است تا در این راستا اشتراکات و تمایزات ایدئولوژیک این دو حکومت را در بافت ­های سلطنتی ­شان مشخص کند و اینکه راهبردها و شیوه ­های ایدئولوژیک آنها با توجه به خشونت نوشتاری و تصویری آشوریان تفاوت­های بنیادینی داشته است یا خیر؟ پژوهش حاضر برای دستیابی به اهداف مورد نظر خود کتیبه­ ها و تصاویر (نقوش برجسته، استل­ ها، مهرها، سکه ­ها) بافت­ های سلطنتی این دو دوره را بررسی کرده است. با توجه به راهبردها، شیوه ­ها و مفاهیم مورد بررسی در این پژوهش مانند شاه توانمند و قدرتمند، سلطه­ طلبی فراگیر و جهان­ شمول، پیوند شاه با خدا (خدایان)، مشارکت اقوام زیر سلطه در پیشبرد اهداف دو امپراتوری، پروژه ­های بزرگ ساختمانی و ساخت بناهای باشکوه و غیره تفاوت چندانی در ایدئولوژی سلطنتی دو امپراتوری آشور نو و هخامنشی دیده نمی­شود. البته خشونت کلامی و تصویری صریح و عریان آشوریان را در نقوش برجسته و کتیبه ­های سلطنتی آنها نباید نادیده گرفت، این در حالی است که در مدارک و شواهد نوشتاری و تصویری هخامنشیان به‌ویژه در تخت جمشید این خشونت صریح دیده نمی­ شود که ویژگی مهم جهان‌بینی و ایدئولوژی نظام پادشاهی هخامنشی به شمار می­ رود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing Ideology Concerning the Royal Power in Neo-Assyria and Achaemenid Monarchies

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bahman Firoozmandi Shirejini 1
  • Ali Asghar Salahshoor 2
1 Professor, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Ph.D. Candidate in Archaeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

One of the fundamental features of the ancient states associated with power was ideology, and Neo-Assyria and the Achaemenid empires were no exception to this rule. If we look at the written and visual documents and evidence of the royal contexts of Neo-Assyria and the Achaemenid, ideology has been at the heart of these two empires. How did they treat the subject people? How was their cooperation and participation with these empires? What was the connection between kings and their god or gods to justify their actions? How did the royal inscriptions and images describe the characteristics of a mighty and powerful king? What were the characteristics of hegemony and the view of domination over the whole world and nations in their views and in what methods was it done? These are the questions that this research seeks to answer to determine the ideological commonalities and differences between these two empires in their royal contexts and whether their ideological strategies and methods have been fundamentally different concerning the verbal and visual violence of the Assyrians? To achieve its goals, this research has examined the inscriptions and images (reliefs, steles, seals) of the royal contexts of these two periods. Concerning the strategies, methods, and concepts studied in this research, such as the mighty and powerful king, universal hegemony, connection between king and god (gods), participation of subject people in advancing the goals of the two empires, large construction projects and building of magnificent monuments, etc. There is not much difference in the royal ideology of the two Neo- Assyria and Achaemenid . Of course, the explicit and barely verbal and visual violence of the Assyrian should not be ignored in their royal reliefs and inscriptions, however, in the written and visual evidence of the Achaemenids, especially in the Persepolis, this violence is not explicitly seen, that is an important feature of the worldview and ideology of the Achaemenid monarchy

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Neo-Assyria
  • Achaemenid
  • Royal Ideology and Power
  • Royal visual and written evidence
  • Propaganda
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