استراتژی نظامی در امپراتوری ساسانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد باستان شناسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه باستان شناسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه باستان شناسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

بحث در ارتباط با برنامه­ ریزی، اجرای صحیح و کارآمدی استراتژی­ های یک حکومت، همچون تعریف واژۀ استراتژی کار بسیار دشواری است. داشتن قوای نظامی نیرومند و بهره‌مندی از انواع جنگ‌افزارهای کارآمد و روزآمد، همواره یکی از آرمان‌های حکومت‌ها در طول تاریخ بوده است. نظام‌های حاکم بر ایران نیز از این قاعده مستثنی نبوده‌اند و سرمایه‌های مالی و انسانی خود را برای نیل به این اهداف به کار برده‌اند. پادشاهی ساسانی، آخرین حکومت ایرانی دنیای باستان پیش از حمله اعراب که از نظر وسعت جغرافیایی پس از شاهنشاهی هخامنشی، پهناورترین و قدرتمندترین دولت حاکم بر ایران بود، در بسیاری از جنبه‌های نظامی پیشرفته‌تر از حکومت‌های پیش از خود بود؛ اما ساسانیان بدون برنامه‌ریزی‌های دقیق استراتژیک نمی‌توانستند چنین موفق در مسائل نظامی ظاهر شوند. حال پرسش این است که ساسانیان در راستای حفظ و تداوم حکومتشان چه استراتژی­ نظامی را اتخاذ کرده بودند؟ پرسشی که پاسخ بدان را می­ توان در انواع استراتژی­های کلان، بلندمدت و کوتاه­مدت آنان خلاصه کرد. اگرچه استراتژی بسیار متخاصمانۀ حکومت ساسانی چندان با تئوری­ های امروزی هماهنگ نیست، اما در دورانِ بسیار متزلزل باستانِ متأخر، مفید و کارآمد بوده است. بدون داشتن این استراتژی کلان، پادشاهان ساسانی نمی­ توانستند به تعداد بی ­شماری پیروزی­ بادوام و چشمگیر دست یابند. آنها همچنین از طریق کاربرد این استراتژی جایگاه خاندان سلطنت را در میان اشرافیت سنتی (خاندان­ های فئودال)، روحانیان، جنگ­آوران، بزرگان و غیره حفظ و تقویت نمودند. در این جستار برآنیم تا با رویکرد توصیفی- تطبیقی- تحلیلی در پرداختن به پرسش مطروحه، انواع استراتژی و تاکتیک­ های ساسانیان را تبیین کرده و نقش آنها در قدرت، ضعف، دوام یا زوال امپراتوری را بررسی کنیم. نتیجۀ این جستار به­ طور کلی کارآمدی انواع استراتژی­ و تاکتیک­ های ساسانیان را در ادوار اولیه و میانۀ این حکومت نشان می­ دهد؛ اما خطاهای استراتژیک برخی پادشاهان در اواخر دوران ساسانی و چند سده پافشاری در ادامه و تکرار استراتژی کلان­ موجبات تضعیف حکومت را فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Military Strategy in the Sasanian Empire

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Khonsari Nejad 1
  • Seyed Mehdi Mousavi Kouhpar 2
  • Sorur Khorashadi 3
1 M.A Student of Archaeology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Archaeology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Archaeology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

It is difficult to debate about the planning, correct implementation, and effectiveness of a government's strategies, such as defining the concept of the strategy. Having a strong military force and utilizing a variety of efficient and modern armament has always been one of the ideals of governments throughout history. The Iranian states have not been exempted from this rule and have used their financial and human resources to achieve these goals. Although the Sasanians were more advanced in many aspects of administration and military than the previous Iranian governments, they could not have been so successful in military affairs without careful strategic planning. The question is, what military strategy did the Sasanians adopt for the maintenance and the continuity of their empire? The answer to this question can be summarized in a variety of grand, long-term and short-term strategies. The very hostile strategy of the Sasanian government is not very much in line with modern theories, but it was fruitful and effective in the tumultuous late antiquity. Without their grand strategy, the Sasanian kings would not have been able to achieve numerous lasting and dramatic victories. Through the application of this strategy, they maintained and strengthened the position of the royal family among the traditional aristocracy (feudal clans), clergy, warlords, high nobility, and so on. In this paper, in order to find answers for our question, we attempt to explain the various types of strategies and tactics of the Sasanians through a descriptive-comparative-analytical approach and examine their role in the power, weakness, durability, or decline of their empire. The result generally shows the efficacy of the various Sasanian strategies and tactics in the early and middle periods, but the strategic errors of certain kings in the late period and several centuries of persistence and repetition of some aspects of their grand strategy resulted in undermining of their government

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sasanian
  • Strategy
  • tactics
  • Military
  • the Eastern Roman Empire
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