کاربرد GIS و منطق فازی در مدیریت منابع فرهنگی؛ ارائه مدل پیش‌بینی محوطه‌های مس-وسنگ چهارمحال و بختیاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری باستان‌شناسی پیش از تاریخ، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استادیار گروه باستان شناسی، دانشگاه شهرکرد

3 دانشیار گروه باستان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شهرکرد

10.22059/jarcs.2020.269316.142640

چکیده

باستان‌شناسان تنها کسری از بی‌شمار محوطه باستانی را شناسایی و ثبت کرده‌اند. در حالی که هزاران محوطه در سال برای توسعه مداوم زمین‌ها تخریب می‌شوند. یکی از راه‌ها برای کمک به درک و شناسایی این مکان‌ها، مدل‌های پیش‌بینی هستند. بسیار مشخص است که وقتی صحبت از مدل‌سازی می‌شود، در واقع با رویکرد تقلیل‌گرایانه، سعی در شبیه‌سازی آن پدیده‌ای است که در زمان‌های بسیار دور رخ داده است. با این حال مدل‌های پیش‌بینی ابزارهایی هستند که می‌توانند در بسیاری از موارد به کمک باستان‌شناسان بیایند. این پژوهش به کمک نرم‌افزار ArcMap سعی می­کند تا با بهره­گیری از رابطه استقرارهای باستانی با چشم‌انداز و بررسی عوامل تاثیرگذار بر این استقرار‌ها، براساس مدل پیش­بینی، مناسب­ترین موقعیت­ها را برای شکل­گیری محوطه­های دوران مس­وسنگ چهارمحال و بختیاری معرفی کند. برای دستیابی به این مهم، ابتدا موقعیت جغرافیایی 75 محوطه مس‌وسنگی این منطقه نسبت به متغیرهای زیست­محیطی ارتفاع از سطح دریا، درصد شیب زمین، فاصله از آبراهه، پوشش گیاهی و کلاس بافت خاک بررسی شد. سپس با استفاده از تحلیل منطق فازی در GIS مناسب­ترین مکان­ها را که پتانسیل بالقوه برای وجود محوطه‌های دوران مس‌وسنگ دارند، معرفی شدند. در نهایت و بعد از تجزیه و تحلیل وضعیت توزیع فضایی محوطه­ها نسبت به عوامل ذکرشده و بررسی میزان دقت و صحت مدل پیشنهادی با استفاده از 15 محوطه شاهد، مشخص شد که این مدل به خوبی از عهده پیش­بینی مطلوب­ترین مکان­ها برای شکل­گیری استقرارهای مس‌وسنگ منطقه برآمده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

GIS and Fuzzy Logic in the Management of Cultural Resources; Presenting the Predictive Model of Chalcolithic Sites in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Alirezazadeh Alirezazadeh 1
  • Mahmood Heydarian 2
  • Alireza Khosrowzadeh 3
1 Ph.D. student, Department of Archaeology, University of Tarbiat Modares
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Shahrekord
3 Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Shahrekord
چکیده [English]

Archaeologists have identified and recorded only some of the innumerable archaeological sites, while thousands of sites are destroyed each year to make way for ongoing land development. One way to help us understand and protect these sites is to create Predictive models. It is obvious that when it comes to modeling, in fact, with Reductionist approaches, it is an attempt to simulate a phenomenon that has occurred in very distant times. However, predictive models are tools that can help archaeologists in many cases. This research tries to introduce the most suitable locations for the formation of the Chalcolithic settlements of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari whit ArcMap software and based on utilizing the relationship between ancient settlements and landscapes, investigating the role of factors affecting these settlements and predictive models. To achieve this, at first, 75 Chalcolithic sites in this area were surveyed relative to the environmental variables of altitude from the sea level, slope percent, distance from the water resources, vegetation, and soil texture class. Then using fuzzy logic analysis in GIS, the most suitable places for the existence of Chalcolithic sites were identified. Finally, after analyzing the situation of the spatial distribution of the sites concerning the factors mentioned above, and examining the accuracy of the proposed model based on using 15 control sites, proved that this model has come up well from the forecast of the most suitable locations for the formation of the Chalcolithic settlements of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari.
In addition to saving time and money, such models can help to better understand the environmental potentials and factors influencing the formation of prehistoric sites. It is very clear that in archeological surveys, a process similar to modeling is subconsciously formed in the mind of the survey team so that after a few days of fieldwork in a particular landscape, the survey team subconsciously understands in which part of the environment the "possibility" of the site is more and in which parts it is less. It should be noted that environmental factors affecting ancient settlements are diverse and abundant. But some of them can be selected as the most important factors. It can never involve all the influencing factors in modeling. The nature of modeling takes advantage of this reductionist perspective. In the meantime, to provide a predictive model for Chalcolithic sites of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, 75 Chalcolithic sites in the region are used. These sites have been identified in archaeological surveys in the region. However, from the environmental variables, five variables of Altitude, Percentage of Land Slope, Distance from the Waterway, Vegetation, and Soil Texture Class were selected. Another point involved in selecting variables is that they do not change much over time.
The way it works is that these five variables are added information layers in the ArcMap software. Then the geographical UTM of the desired sites will be added to each of these layers separately. It is easy to determine the distribution of the Chalcolithic sites of the region concerning these layers. These distributions will be presented in the form of diagrams. Here the required information is extracted from 75 sites. This information extracted in the next step forms the basis for the production of “Fuzzy” layers. These fuzzy layers are made with the help of the extracted data of the previous step and by selecting the desired Fuzzy Functions. Finally, by overlay the five fuzzy layers produced, a prediction model is presented for the Chalcolithic sites of the area.
The questions that arise here are how ArcMap software can help to better understand environmental factors on ancient settlements? What are the advantages of fuzzy logic modeling? Are such proposed models effective in practice or are they purely theoretical? How accurate is this model and where are the position of important sites and regional indicators in this model? It should be noted that ArcMap software has many capabilities. Among other things, it can easily provide researchers with a view of an area with the help of a digital elevation model (DEM). Using DEM, the location of the sites to environmental factors can be determined. Suppose you have identified a large number of sites, with the help of this software you can easily and with a few commands to determine what distribution the sites have taken with rivers and other factors.
These are just a few of the many features of ArcMap software. Using this software, different layers can be analyzed and models can be presented. One of the advantages of the fuzzy prediction model for researchers is that it provides infinite continuous values ​​for the possibility of having a site in a landscape. That is, based on the input information, it can determine the possibility of a site in a landscape as a continuous spectrum (from zero to one). Therefore, the study area can be divided into very desirable, desirable, moderate, etc. in terms of the possibility of the existence of an ancient site. This capability is due to the continuous quantification of fuzzy logic to each of these environmental factors. Also, the prediction model presented in this method is testable. That is, if a model is presented based on the number of sites, it can be tested by several other sites. It can even be determined in the model where the position of the index sites of the region is and what number this model considers for the geographical location of those sites.
In fuzzy logic modeling, the performance of fuzzy functions plays a key role. The proposed model can only provide a near-realistic explanation if these functions are used correctly. For example, it is very obvious that in the analysis of variables of altitude and percentage of land slope, different fuzzy functions should be used. As the following theoretical studies will show, the percentage of slope changes compared to altitude changes are more decisive in determining the location of the site. That is, if a few percent is added to the slope, this factor moves to the critical point, while the altitude variable is not so sensitive. That is, in this particular example, the fuzzy function for the slope of the land must be more sensitive than the fuzzy function for the altitude variable. Therefore, it is necessary to model each of the variables with the most appropriate fuzzy function available. That is, the sensitivity of the variable is in good agreement with the sensitivity of the fuzzy function.
Considering all these cases, a fuzzy prediction model was presented for the location of Chalcolithic sites of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. In this model, it was determined what distribution the sites of the region have adopted concerning the mentioned five variables. The desired geography was determined for the possibility of the existence of Chalcolithic sites in this area. In this model, the entire surface of the area was presented as a map, which is colored with a range of black (zero) to white (one). White areas are desirable places for the existence of Chalcolithic sites in the region. However, the black dots indicate that the possibility of a site in those areas is very low. Significant sites of the region, such as Choghate Eskandari, Tape Jamalo, Koganak, Aloni, Tape Afghan, Gerde Chelehgah, and the like, are in white dots in this model. Also, the fuzzy value of these areas can be determined with great accuracy, as shown in the table in this text. Therefore, by using these models, it is possible to determine the desired landscape for placing the Chalcolithic site in practice, not just on paper. While the importance of environmental factors involved in this modeling can be seen. This modeling can save time and money. Also, the reasons for the formation of sites in different landscapes can be examined, and vice versa, why the distribution and existence of sites in such parts of the study area are so low.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • chalcolithic
  • Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari
  • Spatial Analysis
  • Predictive Model
  • Fuzzy logic
اشرفی، طاهره، ایمانی‌پور، مهناز، خاکسارحقانی، سعادت، روغنی شهرکی، قهرمان، شعبانی‌نژاد، حمیدرضا، صالحی، فرحناز، نورمحمدی، فریدون، ولی‌پور، قدیر، (1389)، سالنامه آماری استان چهارمحال و بختیاری 1388، شهرکرد: معاونت برنامه‌ریزی استانداری چهارمحال و بختیاری.
بای‌بوردی، محمد، (1393)، فیزیک خاک، تهران: موسسه انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
جولایی، واحد، محمدی، عباسعلی، (1396)، گزارش فصل دوم (بخش مرکزی) بررسی باستان‌شناختی شهرستان بن، شهرکرد، سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری.
 حیدری، معصومه، شهریارپور، علی، مقیمیان، علیرضا، زارعان، شراره، رئیسی، ابراهیم، (1393)، گزارش اقتصادی، اجتماعی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری سال 1392، شهرکرد، معاونت برنامه‌ریزی و اشتغال استانداری چهارمحال و بختیاری.
خسروزاده، علیرضا، (1386)، گزارش فصل اول بررسی باستان‌شناختی شهرستان فارسان، شهرکرد، سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری.
 خسروزاده، علیرضا، (1388)، گزارش فصل اول بررسی باستان‌شناختی بخش میانکوه شهرستان اردل، شهرکرد، سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری.
 خسروزاده، علیرضا، (1389)، گزارش فصل دوم بررسی باستان‌شناختی بخش میانکوه شهرستان اردل، شهرکرد، سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری.
 خسروزاده، علیرضا، (1390)، گزارش فصل سوم بررسی باستان‌شناختی بخش میانکوه شهرستان اردل، شهرکرد، سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری.
 رفاهی، حسینقلی، (1388)، فرسایش آبی و کنترل آن، تهران: موسسه انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
زاگارل، الن، (1387)، باستان‌شناسی پیش از تاریخ منطقه بختیاری: ظهور شیوه زندگی در ارتفاعات، ترجمه کوروش روستایی، شهرکرد، سازمان میراث فرهنگی صنایع دستی و گردشگری استان چهارمحال و بختیاری.
شجاعی، علیرضا، عباسی، علیرضا، ادهمی، مهران، آبیار، زهرا، (94-1393)، گزارش اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری در سال‌های 94-1393، شهرکرد، سازمان برنامه و بودجه استان چهارمحال و بختیاری.
شیوندی، داود، نظریان، علیرضا، داودی، قدرت الله، ریاحی، مهدی، (1385)، سیمای محیط‌زیست در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری، شهرکرد، شرکت چاپ و نشر افست شهرکرد، تحت نظارت واحد آموزش و برنامه‌ریزی اداره کل.
طاهری، محمود، ایروانی قدیم، فرشید، کبیریان، محمدعلی، (1396)، «استفاده از ریاضیات فازی در باستان‌شناسی»، ششمین کنگره مشترک سیستمهای فازی و هوشمند ایران، دانشگاه باهنر کرمان، اسفند 1396.
عرب، احمد، محمدی، عباسعلی، (1395)، گزارش فصل اول (بخش شیدا) بررسی باستان‌شناختی شهرستان بن، شهرکرد، سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری.
علیرضازاده نودهی، مهدی، (1397)، «مطالعه الگوی استقراری و برهم‌کنش جوامع مس‌وسنگ چهارمحال و بختیاری با مناطق هم‌جوار»، کارشناسی ارشد، استاد راهنما: دکتر محمود حیدریان، دانشگاه شهرکرد، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی.
گیوی، جواد، (1376)، «ارزیابی کیفی تناسب اراضی برای نباتات زراعی و باغی»، وزارت کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، نشریه موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، شماره 1015.
مقصودی، مهران، زمان‌زاده، محمد، اهدائی، افسانه، یوسفی زشک، روح‌الله و یمانی، مجتبی، (1393)، «تحلیل نقش عوامل محیطی در مکان‌گزینی سکونتگاه‌های پیش از تاریخ دشت ورامین با استفاده از منطق فازی»، برنامه‌ریزی و آمایش فضا، دوره نوزدهم، شماره 3، پاییز 94.
 
Alirezazadeh, N. M. 2018. A Study of the Settlement Pattern and Cultural Interaction of Chalcolithic Societies in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari with Neighboring Regions, M.Sc., Supervisor: Mahmoud Heydarian, Shahrekord University, Faculty of Literature and Humanities [In Persian].
Arab, A. Mohammadi, A. A. 2016. Final Report of First Season of Archaeological Survey in Ben (Shayda Part), Shahrekord, Publication in the Iranian Center for Archaeological Research, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran [In Persian].
Ashrafi, T. Imani Pour, M. Khaksar Haghani, S. Roghani Shahraki, Gh. Shaabani Nezhad, H. Salehi, F. Nour Mohammadi, F. Vali Pour, Gh. 2009. Statistical yearbook of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Shahrekord: Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Governor's Planning Deputy [In Persian].
Bybordi, M. 2014. Soil Physics, Tehran: University of Tehran Publishing Institute [In Persian].
Carr, C. 1985. Introductory remarks on regional analysis, in C.Carr (ed.) For Concordance in Archaeological Analysis: Bridging Data Structure, Quantitative Technique, and Theory. Kansas City: Westport Publishers, pp. 114–127.
Dollfus, G. 1978. Djaffarabad, Djowi, Bendebal : contribution à l'étude de la Susiane au Ve millénaire et au début du IVe millénaire. Paléorient 4: 141-167.
Esmaeili Jelodar, M. and Zolghadr, S. 2014. Central Zagros, Highland Fars and Lowland Susiana: a sphere of interaction in the 5th millennium BCE. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan (AMIT). Vol: 46.
Flannery, K. V. 1965. The Ecology of Early Food Production in Mesopotamia. Science 147: 1247-1256.
Givi, J. 1997. Qualitative Assessment of Land Suitability for Crops and Orchards, Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Journal of Soil and Water Research Institute, No. 1015 [In Persian].
Heydari, M. Shahryar Pour, A. Moghimian, A. Zarean, Sh. Raeisi, E. 2014. Economic and social report of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province in 2016, Shahrekord, Deputy of Planning and Employment of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province [In Persian].
Jolaei, V. Mohammadi, A, A. 2017. Final Report of Second Season of Archaeological Survey in Ben (Central Part), Shahrekord, Publication in the Iranian Center for Archaeological Research, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran [In Persian].
Judge, W. J. and L. Sebastian, eds. 1988. Quantifying the Present and Predicting the Past: Theory, Method, and Application of Archaeological Predictive Modeling. Denver: U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Department of Interior.
Khosrowzadeh, A. 2007. Final Report of First Season of Archaeological Survey in Farsan County, Shahrekord, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization [In Persian].
Khosrowzadeh, A. 2009. Final Report of First Season of Archaeological Survey in Miankuh Part of Ardal County, Shahrekord, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization [In Persian].
Khosrowzadeh, A. 2010. Final Report of Second Season of Archaeological Survey in Miankuh Part of Ardal County, Shahrekord, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization [In Persian].
Khosrowzadeh, A. 2011. Final Report of Third Season of Archaeological Survey in Miankuh Part of Ardal County, Shahrekord, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization [In Persian].
Kohler, T. A. 1988. Predictive locational modeling: history and current practice, In W.J. Judge and L.Sebastian (eds) Quantifying the Present and Predicting the Past: Theory, Method, and Application of Archaeological Predictive Modeling, US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management Service Center, Denver, CO, pp. 19–59.
Kohler, T. A. and Parker, S. C. 1986. Predictive models for archaeological resource location, In M.B. Schiffer (ed.) Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 9, New York: Academic Press, pp. 397–452.
Kvamme, K.L. 1990. The fundamental principles and practice of predictive archaeological modeling. In A.Voorrips (ed.) Mathematics and Information Science in Archaeology: A Flexible Framework, Studies in Modern Archaeology, Bonn: Holos-Verlag, Vol. 3, pp. 257–295.
Kvamme, K.L. 1983. Computer Processing Techniques for Regional Modeling of Archaeological Site Locations. Advances in Computer Archaeology 1:26-52.
Kvamme, K.L. 1989. Geographic information systems in regional archaeological research and data management. In M.B.Schiffer (ed.) Archaeological Method and Theory, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, Vol. 1, pp. 139–203.
Kvamme, K.L. and Kohler T.A. 1988. Geographic information systems: technical aids for data collection, analysis, and display. In W.J.Judge and L.Sebastian (eds) Quantifying the Present and Predicting the Past: Theory, Method, and Application of Archaeological Predictive Modeling, Denver, CO: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management Service Center, pp. 493–547.
Maghsoudi, M. Zamanzadeh, M. Ehdaei, A. Yousefi Zoshk, R. 2015. Yamani Mojtaba. Analysis of the Role of Environmental Factors in Site Selecting of Prehistoric Settlements in Varamin Plain with Usage Fuzzy Logic. MJSP. 2015; 19 (3): 263-261 URL: http://hsmsp.modares.ac.ir/article-21-11056-fa.html [In Persian].
Mink, Ph, B. John Ripy, Keiron Baily and Ted Grossardt. 2009. Predictive Archaeological Modeling using GIS-based Fuzzy Set Estimation. Paper presented at the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington: D.C. January 11-15.
Nicolucci, F. and S. Hermon. 2010. A Fuzzy Logic Approach to Reliability in Archaeological Virtual Reconstruction, in: Nicolucci, F. and S. Hermon (eds.), Beyond the Artifact. Digital Interpretation of the Past. Proceedings of CAA2004, Prato 13–17 April 2004. Archaeolingua, Budapest, pp. 28-35.
Refahi, H. 2009. Water Erosion and its Control, Tehran: University of Tehran Publishing Institute [In Persian].
Shirazi, R. Norouzi A, A. Heidary, M. and Ahmadi, Kh. 2015. New evidence of Chalcolithic nomadic campsite in the Highland Zagros, Iran: Saki Abad, Antiquity Project Gallery, Issue 344. April 2015.
Shivandi, D. Nazarian, A. Davoodi, G. Riahi, M. 2006. Environmental Aspect in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Shahrekord, Shahrekord Offset Publishing Company, under the supervision of the training and planning unit of the General Administration [In Persian].
Shojaei, A. Abbasi, A. Adhami, M. Abyar, Z. 2015. Economic, social and cultural report of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province in the years 2014-2015, Shahrekord, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province program and budget organization [In Persian].
Taheri, M. Iravani Ghadim, F. Kabirian, M. 2018. Using of Fuzzy Mathematics in Archeology, Sixth Joint Congress of Fuzzy and Intelligent Systems of Iran, Bahonar University of Kerman, March 2017 [In Persian].
Warren, R.E. 1990. Predictive modeling in archaeology: a primer. In K.M.S.AlIen, S.W. Green, and E.B.W.Zubrow (eds) Interpreting Space: GIS and Archaeology, London: Taylor & Francis, pp. 90–111.
Wescott, K. and Brandon R. j. 2005. Practical Applications of GIS for Archaeologists, A Predictive Modeling Toolkit. Taylor & Francis e-Library: London 2005.
Wright, P. N. 2016. Predicting the Presence of Historic and Prehistoric Campsites Virginia’s Chesapeaks Bay Counties. A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the USC Graduate School University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science.
Zadeh, L. A. 1965. Fuzzy Sets. Information and Control, No 8, pp: 338-353.
Zagarell, A. 1982. The Prehistory of the Northeast Bakhtiyari Mountains, Iran: The Rise of a Highland Way of Life. Beihefte zum Tubinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, 42, Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden.
Zagarell, A. 2008. The Prehistory of the Northeast Bakhtiyari Mountains, Iran: The Rise of a Highland Way of Life, Translated by Kurosh Rostaei, Shahrekord, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization [In Persian].
  • تاریخ دریافت: 20 آبان 1397
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 09 اردیبهشت 1398
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 08 دی 1399