سازمان اداری تپه چغاماران ماهیدشت در عصر مفرغ قدیم: پیشنهاد یک فرضیه

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد باستان شناسی، دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد گروه باستان‌شناسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

مقاله‌ی پیش رو بر اساس مدارک اداری کاوش شده در تپه چغاماران ماهیدشت و همچنین پژوهش‌ها و کارهای میدانی که پیش‌تر در این منطقه انجام‌شده به ارائه‌ی یک فرضیه‌ در مورد سازمان اداری این محوطه و ماهیدشت در عصر مفرغ قدیم می‌پردازد. بر اساس این فرضیه، جوامع ساکن منطقه برای سازگاری با شرایط اجتماعی- اقتصادی و سیاسی پایان هزاره چهارم و آغاز هزاره سوم ق.م و در تلاش برای تنوع بخشیدن به شیوه‌های معیشتی خود یک اقتصاد دوگانه‌ی آمیخته از کشاورزی و دام‌پروریِ روستامحور را شکل داده بودند که شامل گروه‌های کشاورز یکجانشین و گروه‌های دام‌پرور کوچ‌روی بود که می‌توانستند ضمن بهره‌گیری از ظرفیت بالای دام‌پروری ‌منطقه در ساماندهی دوباره‌ی تجارت منطقه‌ای و فرامنطقه‌ای ایفای نقش کنند. سازمان اداری این جوامع می‌بایست با غیبت گروه‌های کوچ‌رو در روستا در بخش‌هایی از طول سال سازگار می‌شد، بنابراین یک سازمان اداری اشتراکی شکل گرفت که در آن گروه‌های مختلف مردم می‌توانستند تولیدات، مواد غذایی و دارایی‌های خود را در یک مرکز اداری مشترک ذخیره کرده و در هنگام نیاز به آن دسترسی پیدا کنند، درنتیجه همه‌ی گروه‌ها به‌ویژه گروه‌های کوچ‌رو می‌توانستند از حفظ و کنترل دارایی‌های خود در روستا اطمینان پیدا کنند. آزمودن این فرضیه نیازمند انجام پژوهش‌های بیشتر و جامع‌تر در مورد مدارک اداری پیداشده در این منطقه و همچنین انجام پژوهش‌های موزه‌ای و کارهای میدانی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Early Bronze Age Administrative Organization of Chogha Maran, the Mahidasht: A Hypothesis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Khayani 1
  • Kamaleddin Niknami 2
1 MA in Archaeology, University of Tehran
2 Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

This paper will suggest a hypothesis about the Early Bronze Age administrative organization of Chogha Maran and the Mahidasht in the West Central Zagros based on administrative evidence retrieved from the Early Bronze Age trash deposits excavated at the site of Chogha Maran and previous researches and fieldworks carried out in the region. Based on this hypothesis, in order to adapt to the socio-economic and political developments of the Late Forth and Early Third Millennium B.C. and trying to diversify their subsistence strategies, communities of the region developed a village based mixed economy involving settled farmer groups and mobile pastoralist groups who could exploit pastoralism potential of the mountainous environment of the region as well as reorganizing regional and interregional trade around the Khorasan Highroad. Administrative organization of the communities had to be adjusted to the absence of mobile groups in the village during some periods of the year, therefore, they constructed a communal administration in which each group of people could store their products, foodstuff and properties and access to them when they need. As a result, different groups of people, especially the mobile ones had the assurance that they could protect and control their belongings in the village. Testing the hypothesis requires further studies on the administrative evidence excavated at Chogha Maran as well as museum research and fieldworks.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Early Bronze Age
  • Mahidasht
  • Chogha Maran
  • administrative organization
  • clay sealings
  • seal impression
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