زن-بودن-روی-مُهر؛ «نشانه‌شناسی وضعی» تجسّم زنانه در شوشان باستان (۳۵۰۰-۱۰۰۰ پیش از میلاد)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه باستان شناسی دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز

چکیده

این مقاله به بررسی خاستگاه‌ها و تطوّر پیکرهای زنانة روی مُهرهای استوانه‌ای دشت شوشان طی هزارة چهارم تا پایان هزارة دوم پیش‌ازمیلاد می‌پردازد. پیکرهای زنانة روی مُهرهای استوانه‌ای، مطابق با بافت‌ها و وضعیّت‌های باستان‌شناختی خود به مثابه متغیّر مستقل مورد توجه قرار گرفته و کیفیات آن‌ها به‌عنوان متغیّر وابسته در نسبت با آن‌ها به آزمون گذاشته شده است. با فرض بر نسبت متقابل وجودی میان وضعیت‌های باستان‌شناختی و حالات پیکرهای زنانه، پیشنهاد شده که با دگردیسی اولی، دومی نیز به شکلی فعّالانه دست‌خوش دگرگونی می‌شود. برای کشف معانی گرفتار در پیکرهای زنانة روی مُهرهای استوانه‌ای شوشان باستان، نشانه‌شناسی وضعی بکار رفته است. برهمین‌اساس، پیکرهای زنانة روی مُهرها و اثر مُهرهای استوانه‌ای در زمینة بافت‌های زمانی-مکانی خود طبقه‌بندی و توصیف شده‌اند. گروه‌های عمده عبارت‌اند از: زنانة الف، زنانة ب، صحنه‌های صناعی، صحنه‌های جمعی و صحنه‌های آیینی. این مقاله بر طبقه‌بندی توصیفی-تحلیلی داده‌ها مطابق با شاخصه‌های شمایل‌نگاشتی آن‌ها می‌پردازد که بر بررسی نظری شواهد باستان‌شناختی مرتبط استوار است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که زن-بودن-روی-مُهرهای استوانه‌ای پدیده‌ای پویا بوده و بر وضعیّت‌یافتگی تاریخی-باستان‌شناختی خود اتکاء داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Womanity as Represnted on-the-Cylinder Seals An Enactive Semiotics of Female Visualisation in Ancient Susiana (3500-1000 B.C.)

نویسنده [English]

  • Vahid Askarpour
چکیده [English]

The paper concerns with an investigation of beginnings and evolution of female figures on the cylinder seals of ancient Susiana plain during the middle of 4th millennium up to the end of 2nd millennium B.C. The female figures on the cylinder seals considered according to archaeological contexts and situations as independent variable according to which the visual qualities of them has been tested. Assuming an existential co-relation between archaeological situations and the modes of female figures, it is suggested that by transforming the first, the latter would be transformed actively as well. For discovering the meanings entangled with female figures on ancient Susiana cylinder seals, the enactive semiotics is applied. Accordingly, female figures on the cylinder seals and sealings are classified and described in terms of their spatiotemporal contexts. The major groups are female-related a, female-related b, crafting scenes, collective scenes and ritual scenes. The paper based on descriptive-analytical classification of data according to iconographic attributes, based on a theoretic examination of related archaeological evidence. The results show that womanity on-the cylinder seals have always been a dynamic phenomenon, depending on its historical and archaeological status.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ancient Susiana
  • Enactive Semiotics
  • Female Figures
  • Cylinder Seals
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