Introduction and Analysis of the Architecture of the Tomb of Sultan Ibrahim Reza in Darmian City and Reading the Relics of its Historical Writings

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D. Candidate in Archeology, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Archeology, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Archeology, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

Abstract

The study of Islamic Period buildings in Iran proves the presence of countless religious and non-religious tombs that are scattered in most parts of this border and region. As one of the most important elements of Islamic-Iranian architecture, these buildings have a special diversity, so that their study reveals the architectural and decorative features of each period. Tomb for religious Personalities in Iran has received more attention than other Islamic countries; the reason for this is the role of tombs and its integration with the customs and religion of Muslim Iranians, and this is the reason that justifies the continued popularity of religious tombs in Iran. In this research, the architecture of the tomb of Sultan Ibrahim Reza located in Abgarm village of Darmian city, South Khorasan province will be introduced. In the present article, while introducing and analyzing the architecture of the building, motifs and decorations, inscriptions and memorabilia of the building are discussed. The present article is based on a descriptive-analytical method and its findings are partly through the study of library resources and the other part is done in the field. The main question of the research is in what period this building was built and what are the salient features of the building architecture? According to the inscription of the building and short reports made by previous scholars, the construction date of the building dates back to the Safavid period, while by studying and analyzing the architecture of Timurid buildings in Khorasan, it probably dates back to the late Timurid period. The tomb of Sultan Ibrahim Reza is a two-storey building with four porches and a magnificent dome. Among the architectural features of the building are symmetry, the use of various arches and magnificent inscriptions on the body of the building, which provide complete information about this building over a long period of time.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Anisi, A. 2007. Early Islamic Architecture In Iran .637-1059. Ph.D. Thesis. The University Of Edinburgh.
Ayati, M. H. 1992. Baharestan in the history and translation of the men of Qayenat and Qohestan. second edition. Mashhad. Ferdowsi University. [in Persian].
Bayhaqi, A. 1982. History of Bayhaqi. edited by Ahmad Bahmanyar. first edition. Tehran. Foroughi Bookstore. [in Persian].
Blair, Sh. Bloom, J. 2007. Islamic Art and Architecture. Vol 2. translated by Yaghoub Azhand. second edition. Tehran. Samat. [in Persian].
Ehsani, M. T. 1989. Seven Thousand Years of Metalworking in Iran. First Edition. Tehran. Scientific and Cultural. [in Persian].
Forghani, M. F. 2006. History of the Ismailis of Qohestan. Second Edition. Tehran. Association of Cultural Works and Honors. [in Persian].
Gharavi, M. 1996. Tomb in the field of Iranian culture. first edition. Tehran. Publications of the Association of Cultural Works and Honors. [in Persian].
Hatam, Q. A. 2000. Islamic Architecture of Iran in the Seljuk Period. First Edition. Tehran. University Jihad. [in Persian].
Hattstein. M. Delius, P. 2004. Islam: Art and Architecture. Ullmann.
HillenBrand, R. 2008. Islamic Art and Architecture. translated by Ardeshir Ishraqi. second edition. Tehran. Rozaneh Publications. [in Persian].
HillenBrand, R. 2010. Islamic architecture: form, function and architecture. Translated by Baqer Ayatollah Zadeh Shirazi. fifth edition. Tehran. Rozaneh. [in Persian].
Kavousi, V. 2010. »Reconstruction of architectural works in the Timurid period«. Journal of Islamic History and Civilization, Year 6. Number 12. Fall and Winter. autumn and winter 2010. pp 129-107. [in Persian].
Khafi, Sh. A. 1991. Historical Geography of Khorasan in the History of Hafez Ebro .Part of Khorasan Herat. edited by Gholamreza Varhram. first edition. Tehran. Information. [in Persian].
Khwandmir, Gh. 2001. History of Habib Al-Seer. Vol 4. Fourth Edition. Tehran. Khayyam. [in Persian].
Kiani, M.Y. 2007. History of Iranian Architecture in the Islamic Period. Ninth Edition. Tehran. Samat Publications. [in Persian].
Mahmoodi Nasab, A. A. 2014. Architecture of the historical context of Sarayan city based on the hot and dry climate of the region. first edition. Tehran. Samira. [in Persian].
Maqdasi, M. 1982. Ahsan Al-Taqasim. Vol 2. Translation on the isolated side. First Edition. Tehran. Authors and Translators Company. [in Persian].
Mostofi, H. 2002. Nozhat Alghlob. By the efforts of Mohammad Dabir Siyaghi. Qarvin. Hadith Today. [in Persian].
Nasrabadi, A. 2003. Report on the re-reading of the murals of the tomb of Sultan Ibrahim. Birjand. Archive of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism of South Khorasan. has not been published. [in Persian].
Nowruzi, S. 2007. The plan to repair and rehabilitate the building and the tomb of Imamzadeh Ebrahim Reza. Birjand. Archive of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism of South Khorasan. has not been published. [in Persian].
 O'kane, B. 2007. Timurid Architecture in Khorasan. translated by Ali Akhshini. first edition. Mashhad. Astan Quds Razavi. [in Persian].
Petersen, A. 1996. Dictionary Of Islamic Architecture. First published. London. Routledge.
Pogachenkova, G. 2008. Central Asian Architectural Masterpieces. translated by Seyed Davood Tabaei. first edition. Tehran. Academy of Arts. [in Persian].
Ravandi, M. 2003. Social History of Iran. Vol 9. Second Edition. Tehran. Negah. [in Persian].
Saber Moghadam, F. 1997. Registration Report of the Tomb of Sultan Ebrahim Reza. Birjand. Archive of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism of South Khorasan. has not been published. [in Persian].
Safa, Z. 1999. History of Literature in Iran. Vol 3 and 4. Eighth Edition. Tehran. Ferdows. [in Persian].
Salehi Shami, M. Y. 1992. Sabl al-Huda. Vol 8. First Edition. Beirut: Dar Al-Kitab Al-Alamiya Publications. [in Persian].
Samaei Dastjerdi, M. Al-Hayari, F. Foroughi Abri, A. 2016. »Study of the social status of artists and craftsmen in the Timurid period«. Scientific-Research Quarterly of the History of Islam and Iran, Vol. 26. New Volume. No. 29. 119 consecutive. Spring 2016. pp 81- 106. [in Persian].
Sedighian, Hossein. 2015. Report on Archaeological Survey of Qohestan and Gazik Departments of Darmian County. Archive of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism of South Khorasan. Unpublished. [in Persian].
Shateri, Mofid. 2015. Heirs of Atrat: Holy Shrines of South Khorasan. First Edition. Printing Company and affiliated with the Endowment and Charity Organization. [in Persian].
Sobhani Tabrizi, Jafar. 2005. Al-Wahhabiya Fi Al-Mizan Al-Mizan. third edition. Qom. Imam Sadegh Institute Publications. [in Persian].
Soroush, M. R. 2007. »A Brief Report on the Steps of Archaeological Identification and Excavation in the Historical Cemetery of Bojd«. Proceedings of the International Conference in Honor of Abdul Ali Birjandi, by Mahmood Rafiei. Tehran. Helmand. [in Persian].
The Holy Quran. [in Persian].
Unknown author. 1982. Hudud Al-Alam from the East to the West. By Manouchehr Sotoudeh. Tehran. Tahoori Library. [in Persian].
Wilber, D. Golmbag, L. Held, R. 1995. Timurid architecture in Iran and Turan. translated by Mohammad Yousef Kiani and Keramatullah Afsar. first edition. Tehran. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. [in Persian].
Yousefi, S. 2008. Research Speculation Report on the Tomb of Sultan Ibrahim. Birjand. Archive of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism of South Khorasan. Unpublished. [in Persian].
Zomarshidi, H. 2008. Arches and Arches in Iranian Architecture. First Edition. Tehran. Iran Urban Development and Improvement Company. [in Persian].
Zomchi Esfezary, m. A. 1959. Rawdat al-Janat in the descriptions of the city of Herat. Vol 2. Corrected by Seyed Mohammad Kazem Imam. First Edition. Tehran. University of Tehran. [in Persian].
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Serial Number 28
September 2022
Pages 189-213
  • Receive Date: 30 April 2019
  • Revise Date: 12 February 2020
  • Accept Date: 17 July 2021
  • First Publish Date: 20 February 2022