Document Type : Research Paper


1 PPh.D.Graduated in Archaeology, University of Tehran, Tehran ,Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, Islamic Azad University of Varamin, Tehran, Iran.


The Iranian plateau is considered as one of the main founding columns of cultural transformation during the sixth, fifth and fourth millennia BC. Archaeological evidances such as the pottery tradition is almost the best example of cultural interactions of this region with the other communities of northwest, central Zagros, Fars and southwestern Iran during in the last quarter of fifth millennium BC. This article focuses on analyzing the intra- and inter-regional relations of Second half of the fifth millennium BC in this Cultural zones according to pottery assemblages. In order to understand the level of social and cultural complexity in the different parts of Iran, the authors have explored how these pottery traditions came into discussed in in the plain of Varamin and Qom to the east, Kurdistan and Zanjan provinces and the eastern plains of central Zagros to the west(Figure.1). From 5500 BC onward, the central Iranian plateau is considered the trade road during the first half of fifth millennium BC links the central Zagros with the sources, but tangable cultural contact with more population movement appeared during the last quarter of fifth millennium BC in Godin VII period. Given the existing archaeological data, Qazvin plain always played a crossroad of cultures and could therefore be regarded as part of the broader framework of cultural and social interaction and relationship. In the late fifth millennium BC, archaeological evidences such as “Plum Ware” indicators of such cultural and economic interaction. "Plum Ware” assemblages have been obtained in an area extending from Varamin plain in the east of central Iranian plateau to Tepe Ghabristan, Tepe Shizar, Tepe Ismail Abad in Qazvin plain, Tepe Ozbaki and Tepe Gazarsang in the west, and Tepe Soha chai, Tepe Karvansara, Tepe Qeshlaq, Tal 11 Talvar, and Tepe Kalnan in the northwestern part of the Central Iranian Plateau, which indicates a relatively widespread distribution of this type of pottery. (Figure.2.3).In the Qomroud region, both Bakun potteries of the Fars province were found with the typical Sialk II and III1-3 (Transitional and Early Chalcolithic period) ceramics this obviously reveals true connection between the society of Fars and central plateau during the fifth millennium BC. The fine painted black on buff pottery vessels of Tepe Qomrud are unknown in terms of shape and role in the central plateau of Iran and are apparently similar to those in southwestern and southern Iran and especially in Susiana plain (Alizadeh, 2008) and Bakun, Rahmatabad and Tal-Gap sites (Azizi et al, 2012) whose origins most probably go back to those areas. These pottery vessels generally have a geometrical shape with broad strips, ladder designs and successive triangles, often filled with Dot Motif designs (Figure.4). Also, evidence of ancient copper works at Tepe Zagheh represent smelting process during the first half of fifth millennium BC at site and for the Early Chalcolithic/Sialk III1-3 period evidence of larger scale of copper production such as slags, crucible in areas such as Tepe Ozbaki, Tepe Cheshmeh Ali and copper workshop in Tepe Ghabristan indicates how small workshop centers changed into the industrial section in the later period (Matthews & Fazeli Nashli, 2004). This, together with findings related to metalwork in Tepe Qeshlaq, Tepe Kalnan, Tepe Karvansara, and Tepe Soha Chai cycle of highland producer and consumers during the fifth millennium BC. Current evidence, particularly the proximity and accessibility of copper resources in Qazvin plain and the high areas of the western margins of the Central Iranian Plateau and the presence of casting tools, objects and molds in most “Plum Ware”-bearing settlements such as Tepe Ghabristan, Maral Tepe Ozbaki, Tepe Godin, Tepe Qeshlaq and Tepe Karvansara, which undeniably help confirm the copper production process in these areas and plum / Godin VII people's specialization in metalwork, reinforces the hypothesis that a group of desentary or pastoral communities scattered along the central plateau to the northern and central regions of Zagros had interactions in the late fifth millennium BC and were specialized in the production and processing of copper objects. Some excavated sites such as Tepe Karvansara and Seh Gabi in the central Zagros represent direct evidence of copper production within the domestic spaces. Therefore, exchange of commodities and trade of copper is a good example, led to cultural integration between the fifth millennium BC communities of central Zagros and central plateau. Moreover, Tepe Qomrud was a key area for trade of copper in the fifth millennium BC and, like other chalcolithic sites in the central Iranian plateau such as Tepe Cheshmeh Ali, Tepe Ghabristan, Tepe Shizar, and Ismail Abad has been obtained important evidence of metalwork processes from archaeological excavations of Tepe Qomrud (Kaboli, 2015) which are clear indications of copper related activities in this area. In recent paper published by Vidale (Vidale et al 2018) technological centralization/standardization and specialization of ceramic and copper production was seen as the main characteristics of central plateau commonalities during the fifth millennium BC., With caution of cultural/historical approaches it seems“Plume Ware” is parts of techno/cultural innovations of late fifth millennium BC in central Zagros and diffused to the north central plateau of Iran. More or less, we know that such ceramic tradition is visible in some north central plateau settlements c.4200 BC while based on the current data this tradition was started in Godin VII period more or less around at the same time sphere. We observe that if the origins of “Plume Ware” back to central Zagros, then by the movement of population this tradition made progress within many settlements in central plateau in less than few generations. This study reveals that the similarity “Plum Ware” with Dalma and Godin VII tradition and also similarity “painted buff pottery of Qomrud with Fars and southwest sites, reinforcing the theory of the existence of cultural interactions between these regions. We assume that although cultures in the Iranian plateau have shared mechanisms of social complexities but, each region has to be examined its own cultural biomass. The need for strategic commodities such as copper and status goods during the fifth millennium BC led to cultural communication and interactions among the mentioned societies. This paper attempts to provide a new insight into the extent of cultural interactions in the Iranian plateau during the fifth millennium.


بحرانی­پور، حنان، (1397)، ارزیابی مجدد برهم کنش های فرهنگی ساکنان زاگرس مرکزی در هزارۀ پنجم ق م با مناطق همجوار بر اساس داده­های باستان شناختی از محوطۀ باستانی نادعلی بیگ، پایان‌نامه دکتری تخصصی باستان‌شناسی، دکتر حسن فاضلی نشلی، تهران، دانشگاه تهران، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی (منتشرنشده).
بدیعی، ربیع، (1373)، جغرافیای مفصل ایران، تهران، اقبال.
بلمکی، بهزاد، (۱۳۹۲)، «گاهنگاری نسبی دشت همدان (پس‌کرانه‌های شمالی کوه الوند) از هزاره پنجم تا دوران میانی هزاره سوم پیش از میلاد»، مجموعۀ ‌مقالات باستان‌شناسی و تاریخ همدان، به ‌مناسبت یکصدمین سالگرد کاوش در همدان، به‌کوشش علی هژبری، تهران، پژوهشگاه سازمان میراث‌ فرهنگی، صنایع‌دستی و گردشگری، صص 17-31.
حصاری، مرتضی و علی­یاری، احمد و اکبری، حسن، (1386)، «گزارش لایه­نگاری و تعیین حریم در محوطه باستانی شغالی پیشوا » ، مجموعۀ مقاله­های نهمین گردهمایی سالانه باستان‌شناسی، گزارش­های باستان‌شناسی(7)، تهران، سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع‌دستی و گردشگری، پژوهشکدۀ باستان‌شناسی، صص133-164.
خسروی، شکوه، (1394)، شرق استان زنجان در دورۀ مس و سنگ، مطالعه پیش از تاریخ منطقه بر اساس کاوش در تپۀ کاروانسرا، پایان‌نامه دکتری تخصصی باستان‌شناسی، دکتر کمال‌الدین نیکنامی، تهران، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی (منتشرنشده).
خسروی، شکوه و خطیب شهیدی، حمید و وحدتی نسب، حامد و علی بیگی، سجاد، (۱۳۹۱)، «روستاهای آغازین و استقرارهای پیش از تاریخی کهن در حوضه آبریز ابهر رود شرق استان زنجان» ، مطالعات باستان‌شناسی، شمارۀ5، صص 131-154.
درویش­زاده، علی، (1389)، زمین‌شناسی ایران، تهران، امیرکبیر.
رحیمی سرخنی، رقیه، (1387)، «گاهنگاری نسبی و مطلق محوطه پیش از تاریخی سهاچای تپۀ زنجان»، پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دکتر کمال‌الدین نیکنامی، تهران، دانشگاه تهران، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی (منتشرنشده).
عباس­نژاد سرستی، رحمت و فاضلی نشلی، حسن، (1394)، «جوامع در حال گذار یا سلسله مراتبی: پیچیدگی­های اقتصادی، اجتماعی و برهم‌کنش‌های فرهنگی در پیش از تاریخ دشت قزوین»، مفاخر میراث فرهنگی ایران، شمارۀ 1، جشن­نامه دکتر صادق ملک شهمیرزادی، تهران، پژوهشگاه سازمان میراث فرهنگی کشور، صص45-52.
ساعد موچشی، امیر، (1389)، بررسی الگوهای استقراری شرق استان کردستان(حاشیه رودخانه قزل‌اوزن)، پایان‌نامه دکتری تخصصی، دکتر کمال‌الدین نیکنامی، تهران، دانشگاه تهران، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی (منتشرنشده).
ساعد موچشی، امیر و دیگران، (1390)، «گاهنگاری نسبی و مطلق تپه کلنان بیجار، محوطه­ای متعلق به دوره مس سنگ میانه در غرب ایران»، نامه باستان‌شناسی، دورۀ اول، شمارۀ 1، پاییز و زمستان، صص 31-56.
شریفی، مهناز، (1394)، مطالعه روند تحولات فرهنگی دورۀ مس و سنگ در کرانه­های شرق زاگرس مرکزی بر اساس کاوش­های تپۀ قشلاق تالوار، پایان‌نامه دکتری تخصصی، تهران، دانشگاه بوعلی همدان (منتشرنشده).
فاضلی نشلی، حسن، (1385)، باستان‌شناسی دشت قزوین از هزارۀ ششم تا هزارۀ اول ق.م، تهران، دانشگاه تهران.
فاضلی نشلی، حسن و دیگران، (1386)، «گزارش مقدماتی کاوش­های تپه قبرستان در سال 1385»، گزارش­های باستان‌شناسی(7)، مجموعه مقالات نهمین گردهمایی سالانه باستان‌شناسی ایران، تهران، پژوهشگاه میراث فرهنگی، صنایع‌دستی و گردشگری، پژوهشکدۀ باستان‌شناسی، صص 439-459.
فاضلی، حسن و آجورلو، بهرام، (1385)، «تپۀ اسماعیل‌آباد»، باستان‌شناسی دشت قزوین از هزارۀ ششم تا هزارۀ اول ق.م، تهران، دانشگاه تهران، صص 149-209.
فاضلی نشلی، حسن، (1390)، «باستان‌شناسی هزارۀ پنجم پیش از میلاد فلات مرکزی و چالش­های پیشرو»، پیام باستان‌شناس، دورۀ 8، شمارۀ 15، بهار و تابستان، صص 11-30.
کابلی، میرعابدین، (1394)، کاوش­های قره‌تپه، تهران، پژوهشگاه سازمان میراث فرهنگی و گردشگری.
مترجم، عباس و شریفی، مهناز، (1397)، «فرآیند گذار از سنت­های فرهنگی نوسنگی جدید به مس و سنگ قدیم در پس‌کرانه‌های شرق زاگرس مرکزی»، پژوهش­های باستان‌شناسی ایران، دورۀ هشتم، شمارۀ 16، بهار، صص 83-102.
مجید‌زاده، یوسف، (1391)، «پاسخ به یک نقد و بحثی دربارة جایگاه سفال آلویی در فرهنگ‌های فلات مرکزی در هزاره‌های پنجم و چهارم پ.م»، باستان‌پژوهی، دورة جدید، سال ششم، ۱۳۹۱، شمارۀ12 و 13، صص 531-741.
ــــــــــــــــ (1389)، کاوش­های محوطۀ باستانی ازبکی، تهران، سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع‌دستی و گردشگری استان تهران.
ــــــــــــــــ (1378)، نخستین و دومین فصل حفریات باستان‌شناختی در محوطه ازبکی: ساوجبلاغ (1377-1378)، تهران، پژوهشکدۀ باستان‌شناسی، سازمان میراث فرهنگی کشور.
ملک شهمیرزادی، صادق، (1382)، ایران در پیش از تاریخ: باستان‌شناسی ایران از آغاز تا سپیده­دم شهرنشینی، تهران، سازمان میراث فرهنگی کشور، چاپ دوم.
مقدم، عباس، (1397)، پروژه پیش از تاریخ زهره: کاوش­های باستان‌شناسی در گورستان تل چگاسفلی، تهران، پژوهشگاه میراث فرهنگی و گردشگری.
مومنی، آتوسا و صادقی، ابراهیم، (1393)، «گمانه­زنی محوطه پیش از تاریخی گازرسنگ، هشتگرد»، مجموعۀ مقاله­های کوتاه دوازدهمین گردهمایی سالانه باستان‌شناسی ایران، تهران، سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع‌دستی و گردشگری، پژوهشگاه میراث فرهنگی و گردشگری، صص 408-411.
وایت، لسلی، (1394)، تکامل فرهنگ: پیشرفت تمدن تا سقوط روم، ترجمۀ فریبرز مجیدی، تهران، نسل آفتاب.
ورجاوند، پرویز، (1377)، سیمای تاریخ و فرهنگ قزوین، تهران، نشر نی.
ولی­پور، حمیدرضا، (1385)، گزارش مقدماتی فصل اول کاوش باستان‌شناسی تپۀ شیزر تاکستان، تهران، پژوهشکدۀ باستان‌شناسی.
هول، فرانک، (1381)، باستان‌شناسی غرب ایران، ترجمۀ زهرا باستی، تهران، انتشارات سمت.
Abedi. A. Omarani. B. Karimifar. A. 2015. “Fifth and Fourth Millennium BC in North-Western Iran: Dalma and Pisdeli Revisited”. Documenta Praehistorica. No. XLII, pp.321-338.
Adams. R. M. 1960. “The Origion of Cities”. Scientific American. 203(3). pp. 153-168.
Adams. R. M. and Nissen. H. J. 1972. The Uruk Countryside. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Arnold. P.J. 1991. “Domestic ceramic production and social organization: a Mexican case study”. In Ethnoarchaeology. Cambridge University Press.
Alizadeh. A. 2016. “Lowland Susiana in the Fourth and Early Third Millennium BCE: The Intertia of the Mesopotamian-centric Sociocultural Interpretation”. In Archaologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan (Amit). Band 48. pp. 33-49.
Alizadeh. A. 2008. Chogha Mish. Volume II. The Development of a Prehistoric Regional Center in Lowland Susiana. Southwestern Iran: Final Report on the Last Six Seasons of Excavations. 1972 – 1978. Chicago Press.
Alizadeh. A. 1992. “Prehistoric settlement Patterns and Cultures in Susiana, Southwestern Iran”. Technical Reports of the Museum of Anthropology. No. 24. Anne Arbor: University of Michigan.
Azizi kharanaghi. M. H. Nishiaki. Y. Khanipur. M. 2012. “Tepe Rahmatabad Pasargadae: The Absolute and Relative Chronology”. Iran Nameh. 27:2-3. pp.78-101.
Badiei. R. 1994. Detailed Geography of Iran. Vol: one. Tehran: Ekhbal publisher [In Persian].
Bahranipour. H. 2018. Evaluation cultural interactions of Central Zagros inhabitants with neighboring areas in the fifth millennium based on archaeological data from Tepe Nadi Ali Big Archaeological Site. Ph.D. Dissertation University of Tehran. [In Persian].
Balmaki. Behzad. 2013. "Relative chronology of Hamadan plain from the fifth millennium to the middle of the third millennium BC". A collection of archeological and historical articles on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of excavation in Hamadan. By Ali Hozhabri. Tehran: Cultural Heritage. Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran. pp. 17-31. [In Persian].
Brumfiel. E. & Earle. T. K. 1987. “Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies: An Introduction”. Brumfiel, E. & Earle. T. K. (Eds.). In: Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies, Cambridge University Press. pp. 1-10.
Childe. V. G. 1951. Social evolution. London. Watts and Company.
Clark. J. G. D. 1989. Economic prehistory. Cambridge University Press.
Clarke. J. E. 1995. “Craft specialization as an anthropological category”. Research in Economic Anthropology. 16: 267- 294.
Costin. C. L. 1991. “Craft specialization: issues in defining, documenting and explaining the organization of production”. Archaeological Method and Theory. University of Arizona Press. Tucson: 1- 55.
Darvish zadeh. Ali. 2010. Geology of Iran. Tehran: Amir Kabir. [In Persian].
Earle. T. 1987. “Chiefdoms in Archaeological and Ethno- historical Perspective”. Annual Review of Anthropology 16: 279-308.
Earle. T. 1991. “Property Rights and the Evolution of Chiefdoms”. T. Earle (Ed.). In Chiefdom: Power, Economy and Ideology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 71-99.
Fazeli Nashli. Hassan. Wong. Edna. H. and Potts. Daniel T. 2005. “The Qazvin Plain Revisited: A Reappraisal of the Chronology of northwestern Central Plateau Iran”. In the 6th to the 4th Millennium BC. Ancient Near Eastern Studies 42. pp. 3-82.
Fazeli. N. H. 2001. An Investigation of Craft Specialization and Cultural Complexity of the Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic Periods in the Tehran Plain. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Bradford.
Fazeli Nashli. Hassan. 2004. Archaeology of the Qazvin Plain. Tehran: University of Tehran. [In Persian].
Fazeli. H. N. and Matthews. R. 2004. “Copper and Complexity: Iran and Mesopotamia in the Fourth Millennium B.C”. Iranian Accounting and Auditing Review. 42. pp.61-75.
Fazeli Nashli. Hassan and Ajorloo. B. 2006, “Tapeh Esmaeil Abad”. In Archaeology of the Qazvin Plain. Tehran: University of Tehran. pp. 149-209. [In Persian].
Fazeli Nashli. Hassan. Et al. 2007. "Preliminary Report of Tepe Qabristan Excavations in 2006". Archaeological Reports (7). Proceedings of the 9th Annual Iranian Archaeological Conference. Tehran: Research Institute of the Cultural Heritage. Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran. [In Persian].
Fazeli. H. Beshkani. A. Markosian. A. Ilkhani. H. Abbasnegad Seresty. R. Young. R. 2009. “The Neolithic to Chalcolithic Transition in the Qazvin Plain Iran: Chronology and subsistence strategies”. Archaologische Mitteilungen Aus Iran Und Turan (AMIT). Band 41. pp. 1-21.
Fazeli Nashli. Hassan. Abbasnejad Sarsti. Rahmat. 2015. "Transitional or Hierarchical Societies: Economic, Social Complexities, and Cultural Interactions in the Prehistory of the Qazvin Plain". Iranian cultural heritage celebrities. No. 1.  Celebration of Dr. Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi. Tehran: Research Institute of the Cultural Heritage Organization. pp. 45-52. [In Persian].
Haerinck. E. Overlaet. B. 1996. The Chalcolithic Period Parchineh and Hakalan. Royal Museums of Art History.
Hesari. M. Ali Yari. A. Akbari. H. 2007.” Report of stratigraphy and Determination of privacy in the archaeological site of the Pishva Tehran”. Cultural Heritage. Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran. Archaeological Report (7): pp. 123-164. [In Persian].
Henrickson. Elizabet. 1985. “An update Chronology of the Early and Middle Chalcolithic of the Central Zagros Highlands Western Iran”. Iran Vol.23. pp. 63-108.
Hamlin. C. 1975. “Dalma Tappe”. Iran 13: 111–128.
Hole. F. 1989. “Patterns of Burial in the Fifth Millennium. Eds. E. F. Henrickson and I. Thuesen”. In Upon this Foundation. The Ubaid reconsidered. Proceedings from the Ubaid Symposium Elsinore may 30th-June 1st 1988. The Carsten Niebuhr Institute of Ancient Near Eastern Studies. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen - Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 149-180.
Hole. F. 1987. The Archaeology of Western Iran. Smithsonian Institute Press. Washington D.C. [In Persian].
Kaboli. Mir Abedin. 2015. Archaeological Excavation at Qare Tepe Qomrud Tehran. Tehran: Research Institute of Cultural Heritage & Tourism. [In Persian].
Khosravi. S. Khatib Shahidi. H. Vahdatinasab. H. Alibaigi. S. Aali. A. 2012. “Early villages and prehistoric sites in the Abharroud Basin North West of Iranian central plateau. Journal of Archaeological Studies: Volume 4. Issue 1. pp. 131-154. [In Persian].
Khosravi. S. 2015. East of Zanjan province in Chalcolithic period: Prehistoric Studies Based on Excavation at Tapeh Karavansara. Ph.D. Dissertation. Tehran: Tarbiat Modares University. [In Persian].
Kohl. P. C. 1978. “The Balance of trade in southwestern Asia in the mid third millennium B. C.”. Current Anthropology. 19 (3): 463-492.
Lamberg- Karlovsky C. C. & Kohl. P. C. 1971. “The Early Bronze Age as seen as from Tepe Yahya”. Expedition 13: 14- 21.
Levine. L.D. and Young T. C. 1986. “A Summary of the Ceramic Assemblages of the Central Western Zagros from the Middle Neolithic to the Late thirds Millennium B.C.”. Colloques Internatioaux Centre National de la Researche Scientifique (CNRS) Prehistoire de la Mesopotamie (Editions Du CNRS). Paris. pp. 15-53.
Malek Shahmirzadi. S. 2003. Prehistoric Iran. Iran from the earliest times to the dawn of urbanism. Tehran: Sobhan nor. [In Persian].
Majidzadeh. Yousef. 2012. "Response to a critique and discussion about the place of plum pottery in the cultures of the Central Plateau in the fifth and fourth millennia BC". Bastan Pazhohi. Year 6. No. 12 and 13. pp. 531- 741. [In Persian].
Majidzadeh. Y. 2010. Excavation at Tepe Ozbaki. Tehran. Cultural Heritage. Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran. [In Persian].
Majidzadeh. Y. 2008. “Excavations at Tepe Ghabristan”. Iran. ISIEO. Roma.
Majidzadeh. Yousef. 1999. The First and Second seasons of Archaeological Excavations in the Ozbaki Site: Savojbolagh (1998-2009). Tehran: Archaeological Research Institute. Cultural Heritage Organization. [In Persian].
Majidzadeh. Y. 1981. “Sialk III and the Pottery Sequence at Tepe Ghabristan: The Coherence of the Cultures of the Iranian Central Plateau”. IRAN. Vol. 19. pp. 141-146.
Majidzadeh. Y. 1978. “Basis of the Pottery Sequence at Tepe Ghabristan”. Iran. XVI: 93-102.
Majidzadeh. Y. 1979. “An Early Prehistoric Coppersmit Workshop at Tepe Qabristan. Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran”. Erganzungsband. 6. pp. 93-103.
Matthews. R. & Fazeli Nashli. H. 2004. “Copper and complexity: Iran and Mesopotamia in the fourth millennium B.C.”. Iran XLII: 77- 90.
Moghaddam. Abbas. 2013. “The Later Village (Chalcolithic) Period in Khuzistan”. (Ed) D.T. Potts. In the Oxford Handbook Ancient Iran. pp. 93-104.
Moghaddam. A. 2018. Archaeological Excavation at Tol-e Chega Sofla Cemetery. Tehran. Tehran: Iranian Center for Archaeological Research. [In Persian].
Moghimi. N. Fazeli Nashli. H. 2015. “An Archaeological Study of the Tokens from Tepe Zāgheh Qazvin Plain Irān”. International Journal of the Society of Iranian Archaeologists Vol. 1. No. 2. pp. 30-42.
Momeni. A. Sadeghi. E. 2014. “Archaeological Excavations of Gazorsang”. In the 12th Annual archaeological Symposium of Iran. Tehran: Research Center of Cultural Heritage. Handicraft and Tourist of Iran. pp. 408-411. [In Persian].
Motarjem. A. Sharifi. M. 2018.” The Process of late Neolithic cultural tradition to early The Cultural Transition from Late Neolithic to Early Chalcolithic in Border Land of Eastern Central Zagros”. Pazhohesh-ha-ye bastanshenasi Iran. Vol.8. Issue. 16. Pp.83-102. [In Persian].
Peacock. D. 1981. “Archaeology, ethnology and ceramic Production”. In: H. Howard & E. Morris (Eds.). Production and distribution: a ceramic viewpoint. BAR International Series. pp. 187- 194.
Potts. D. T. 1994. Mesopotamia and the East. An archaeological and historical study of foreign relations ca. 3400- 2000 B.C. Oxford. Oxford University Press.
Rahimi Sarkheni. R. 2008. “Relative and absolute chronology of Prehistoric Soha chia Tepe. Zanjan”. Master Dissertation. Tehran University. [In Persian].
Renfrew. A.C. and Paul Bahn. 1991. “Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice”. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28147-5.
Rice. P. M. 1987. Pottery analysis. A source book. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
Rothman. M. S and Badler. V. R. 2011. “Contact and Development in Godin Period VI”. In: Hilary Gopnik and Mitchell S Rothman (Eds.). On The High Road: The History of Godin Tepe Iran. Bibliotheca Iranica. Archaeology Art and Architecture series1: 67-139.
Saaed Mocheshi. 2011. Survey of settlement patterns in the valley of the Qezel Ozan River in Eastern Kordestan. Tehran: Ph. D Dissertation. Tehran University. (Unpublished). [In Persian].
Service. E.R. 1962. Primitive Social Organization. An Evolutionary Perspective. New York. Random House.
Service. E.R. 1971. Preliminary Social Organization. An Evolutionary Perspective. New York. Random House.
Sharifi. M. 2015. Cultural Development of Chalcolithic Era in the East of Central Zagros based on Archaeological Excavations at Tepe Gheshlagh. Ph.D. Dissertation. Hamedan: Bu-Ali Sina University. (Unpublished). [In Persian].
Steward. J. H. 1955. Theory of Culture Change. Urbana, University of Illionois Press.
Valipour. H. 2006. “Preliminary report of the first chapter of the excavation of Tepe Shizar Takestan”.Tehran: RICHT. [In Persian].
Varjavand. P. 1998. “A picture of History and culture of Qazvin”. Nashreh Nai publisher. [In Persian].
Vanden Berge. Louis. 1970. “La necropole de Kalleh Nissar”. Archeilogia 32: 46- 73.
Vanden Berge. Louis. 1973. “La necropole de Hakalan”. Archeilogia 57: 49- 58.
Vanden Berge. Louis 1987. “Luristan, Pusht-i Kuh au Chalcolithique Moyen (Les nécropoles de Parchinah ET de Hakalan)”. In Préhistoire de la Mésopotamie. La Mésopotamie préhistorique ET l’exploration récente du djebel Hamrin. Colloque international du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Paris 17-19 décembre 1984. Paris. pp. 91-126.
Voigt. Mary. Dyson. Robert H. Jr. 1992. “The Chronology of Iran 8000-2000 B.C.”. Vols. Robert W. Rnrich (Ed). Chronology in the world archaeology. Third Edition. University of Chicago Press. Chicago. Pp. 122-178. Vol.1. pp.122-153.
White. Leslie. 2015. The Evolution of Culture: the Development of Civilization to the fall of Rome. Translated by Fariborz Majidi. Tehran: Nasle Aftab. [In Persian].
Wong. E. H. Y. Cameron. A. P. & Fazeli N.H. 2010. “Cheshmeh -Ali Ware: A Petrographic and Geochemical Study of Transitional Chalcolithic Period Ceramic Industry on the Northern Central Plateau of Iran”. IRAN. Vol. 48. pp: 11-26.
Wright. H. T. and Johnson. G. A. 1975. “Population Exchange and Early State Formation in Southwestern Iran”. American Anthropologist. 77:267-89.
Young. T. C. and Levine. L. 1974. Excavation of the Godin Project: Second Progress Report Occasional Papers. No: 26. Art and Archaeology. Royal Ontario Museum. Toronto.
Young. T. C. 1967. “The Iranian migration into the Zagros”. Iran 5: 11- 34.
Young. T. C. 1969. Excavations at Godin Tepe. First progress report. Royal Ontario Museum. 3-4.
Zeder. M. A. 1988. “Understanding urban process through the study of specialized subsistence economy in the Near East”. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 7: 1-55.