Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Graduated in Archeology and Lecturer in Gonabad University Higher Education Complex, Gonabad, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.


Because of the hot and dry weather of central desert in Iran, archaeological fieldwork and case studies in some regions like Tabas city have been insignificant and archaeologists were not interested in working there. However, recent archaeological surveys have provided valuable findings for researchers. Specific geographical location and the connection as a natural corridor among central Asia, North of Khorasan, southeast of Iran, and central plateau of Iran, which was made by central desert, can be a great cause of archaeological studies in this region to get better understanding of ancient cultures from east of Iran. Therefore, to achieve perfect understanding over Great Khorasan Culture (BMAC), and the way it was developed across the east of Iran and its intercultural issues with other regions, all of them would demand completed archaeological studies at the same time with this culture in central east. Recent archaeological fieldwork on Great Khorasan Culture (BMAC) in central east were led to recognize several settlements and some new cemeteries located on the east for this culture. Bekanda site in Tabas is one of the significant sites in central east in which many evidences of the Great Khorasan Culture (BMAC) have been observed. This site is located beside the permanent river and of course, it was damaged dramatically. According to archaeological evidences it appears that Bekanda is a cemetery correlated with Bronze Age and associated with Great Khorasan Culture (BMAC). The main sources of this research have been chosen from the library sources and excavations of Bekanda of Tabas. This excavation was done for determining and recommending the border of this site, then these findings were analyzed and interpreted in theoretical studies. This paper intends to introduce and describing Great Khorasan Culture (BMAC) at the eastern Part of central Desert of Iran; furthermore, its results can demonstrate different aspects of this culture.


Anani, B. 2015. The unpublished reports of Archaeological survey of Dastgerdan district of Tabas, Cultural Heritage of South Khorasan, Iran. [In Persian].
Anani, B. 2015. The unpublished reports of Archaeological survey of Montazerieh of central district of Tabas, Cultural Heritage of South Khorasan, Iran. [In Persian].
Anani, B. 2017. The unpublished reports of Archaeological survey of Golshan & Nakhlestan of central district of Tabas, Cultural Heritage of South Khorasan, Iran. [In Persian].
Anani, B. 2018. The unpublished reports of excavation for determine the arena and suggestion of border of Bekanda cemetery of Tabas, Cultural Heritage of South Khorasan, Iran. [In Persian].
Amiet. P. 1986. L’âge des échanges inter-iraniens, 3500-1700 avant J.-C, Notes et documents des Musées de France 11, Paris.
Basafa, H & Rahmati, M. 2012. The unpublished Archaeological reports of Shahrak Firoozeh in Neyshabour, Mazdaknameh. By Kianfar, J & Estakhri, P. Vol. 5, Pp. 613-623. [In Persian].
Biscione. R and Vahdati. A. 2011. Excavations at Tepe Chalow, Northern Khorasan Iran, Studi Micenei Ed Egeo-Anatolici53: 236-241.
Cattani. M & Cerasetti. B & Salvatori. S & Tosi. M. 2008. The Murghab Delta in Central Asia 1990-2001: The GIS from Research Resource to a Reasoning Tool for the Study of Settlement Change in Long-Term Fluctuations, In: Salvatori.S & Tosi.M (Eds.), The Bronze Age and early Iron age in the Margiana lowlands: facts and methodological proposal for a redefinition of the research strategies. The Archaeological map of the Murghab Delta studies and reports, Vol. II, Pp.39-45, Oxford: Archaeopress.
Farjami, M. 2015. New Findings of Bronze age in South Khorasan (Case study: Gavand-e- Baghestan site in Ferdows), 2th national conference on Archaeology of Iran, By Hashemi Zarjabad, H. Birjand: publications of Chahar derakht. [In Persian].
Francfort. H.P. 1994. Fondations de Bactriane et de Margiane protohistoriques: Nuove fondazioni nel vicino oriente antico. Realta e ideologia. A cura di: Mazzoni, S. Published in Pisa by Giardini: 269-297.
Francfort, H.P. 2007. L'art de la Civilisation de l'Oxus à l'Âge du Bronze (2300-1700 av. J.-C. env.) ET SES relations avec les régions voisines, In: Sulla Via delle Oasi, Tesori dell'Oriente Antico, G. Ligabue ET Rossi-Osmida. G (Dir.), Padoue, Il Punto Edizioni, Pp.102-127.
Garajian, O. 1998. “Archaeological survey of prehistoric sities at the marginal area of the Drongar River with refrence to Northeastern Khorasan”, Unpublished Master's thesis in Archaeology, Tarbiat Modarres University. [In Persian].
Heidari, R & Babazadeh, S. 2016. The site of Choopan in Bardaskan; New findings of BMAC culture, The first provincial congress and the fourth congress of the history of architecture and urban planning of Iran (Khorasan Razavi). By Mahmoud Toghraei. Mashhad: Poshtiban publications. [In Persian].
Henrickson, R. C. 1986. A Regional Perspective on Godin III: Cultural Development in Central Western Iran, IRAN, Vol. XXIV, Pp. 1-57.
Hiebert. F. 1994. Origins of the Bronze Age Oasis Civilization in Central Asia, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Harvard University, Cambridge.
Hiebert. F & Lamberg-Karlovsky. C. C. 1992. Central Asia and the Indo-Iranian Borderlands, Iran, XXX: 1-17.
Ionesov. V. 2002. The struggle between life and death in Proto-Bactrian culture: ritual and conflict, Mellen studies in anthropology, Vol. 5.
Iravani Ghadim, F. Talaie, H & Tahmasbi zaveh, H. 2018. Location of Tukrish, Journal of Great KHorasan, Vol. 30, Pp. 1-14. [In Persian].
Kohl. P. 1984. Central Asia: Palaeolithic Beginnings to the Iron Age (L’Asie Centrale des origines`a l’Âge du Fer), Synthese 14, Paris (Ed) Recherché Sur les Civilizations.
Lamberg-Karlovsky. C. C. 2013. The Oxus Civilization. Cupauam, Vol. 39, Pp. 21-63.
Luneau. E. 2015. A New Assessment of the End of the Oxus Civilization (Southern Central Asia, CA.1750-1500/1400 BCE): Overview of the Transformations of the Society, Broadening Horizons 4. BAR Int. Series 2698: 303-308.
Mahmoodi nasab, A, A. Rafei, R. Zolfaghari, S & Akbarpour, Gh. 2018. The unpublished reports of archaeological survey of Dihook district and Pirhajat of central district of Tabas, Cultural Heritage of South Khorasan, Iran. [In Persian].
Moghaddam, A. 1997. “Study and investigation of two-color potteries found from Archaeological excavations of Sagzabad site in Qazvin plain”, Unpublished Master's thesis in Archaeology, University of Tehran. [In Persian].
Rossi-Osmida. G. 2002. Margiana Gonur-depe necropolis, (10 years of excavation by igabue study and research centre), Consideration on the necropolis at Gonur depe, In: Rossi-Osmida. Gabriele, II Punto Edizioni, Pp.69-131.
Saboori, H. Talaie, H and Garazhian, O. 2014. Investigation of post-deposition processes: Case Study; Ferizi site in Sabzevar plain, Journal of Archaeological Studies (JARCS), Vol. 6, Number. 2, Pp. 91-111. [In Persian].
Sarianidi. V. 2007. Necropolis of Gonur, 23-27 Makriyanni Str, Athens 117 42.
Sarianidi. V. 2008. Margus, Mystery and Truth of the Great Culture, 341, (3), Pp. Prof, Illus. Sm. 4to, Boards, Parallel texts in Turkoman, Ashgabat :Türkmendöwlethabarlary.
Sarianidi. V. Dubova. N. 2010. Nouvelles sepultures sur le territoire de la “Necropole royale” de Gonur depe, Arts Asiatiques, Tome 65: 5-26.
Shaikh, M. 2014. “Systematic survey of Yarim Tepe of Daregaz (Investigating the prehistoric settlement of Yarim Tepe of Daregaz and condification of chronology based on pottery findings)”, Unpublished Master's thesis in Archaeology, University of Sistan & Baloochestan. [In Persian].
Soroosh, M & Yoosefi, S. 2014. Razeh site; Evidence of the settlements of the third millennium to the historical period in South Khorasan, 12th annual symposium of the Iranian archaeology, Editors: Roostaie, K & Gholami, M. Tehran: ICAR, Pp: 271-273. [In Persian].
Tahmasbi zaveh, H. 2019. Origin of BMAC culture and its extension in the eastern half of Iran, Unpublished Ph.D thesis in Archaeology, Art University of Isfahan. [In Persian].
Talaie, H. 2006. The Bronze Age of Iran, Tehran: Samt publications. [In Persian].
Thornton. C. 2013. The Bronze Age in Northeastern Iran, In: Potts. D (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, New York: 179‑202.
Udemuradov. B. 2002. Margiana Gonur-depe necropolis, (10 years of excavation by igabue study and research centre), Ceramic material from Gonur-depe necropolis, In: Rossi-Osmida. Gabriele, II Punto Edizioni, Pp.133-164.
Vahdati, A, A. 2014. A BMAC Grave from Bojnord. Northeastern Iran, Iran, Vol. LII: 19-27.
Vahdati, A, A. 2014. Bronze and Iron Ages in Khorasan (3000- 500 BC), In: A review on the archeology of Khorasan/ Selected from archaeological findings and historical-cultural treasures of Khorasan, By Labbaf Khaniki, M. Tehran: Cultural Heritage Publications. [In Persian].
Vahdati, A, A. Francfort, H, P. 2010. Preliminary report on excavation in Damghani site in Sabzevar, Bastanshenasi va Tarikh, Year: 24, Vol. 48, Pp. 17-36. [In Persian].
Vahdati. A.A, Biscione. R, La Farina. R, Mashkour. M, Tengberg. M, Fathi. H, Azadeh M. F. 2019. Preliminary report on the first season of excavations Tepe Chalow. New GKC (BMAC) finds in the plain of Jajarm, NE Iran, “The Iranian Plateau During The Bronze Age/Development of urbanisation, production and trade”, Edited by Meyer. J.W, Vila. E, Mashkour. M, Casanova. M, Vallet. R, Lyon, Maison de l`Orient et de la Mediterranee- Jean Pouilloux, (Archaeologie(s); 1): 179-200.
www.Google سایت­های اینترنتی