Aftab, A. et al. 2014. Investigation of the effect of natural factors on the spatial distribution of ancient centers of West Azerbaijan by using GIS. Spatial Planning. No. 14, pp. 37-60. [in Persian].
Aghalari, B. M. Deh-Pahlvan. 2011. Cultural indicators in the northwest of Iran in Parthian period with a look at the findings of the second season of excavation in Kohneh-Pasgah Tepesi. Archaeological Studies. Volume 3, Number 1, pp. 11-38. [in Persian].
Ali-Beigi, S. 2010. Resuming Archaeological Researches of the Parthian site in Bistoon. Modares Archaeological Researches. Second year, third issue, pp. 39-69. [in Persian].
Alizadeh, F. R. Shirazi. 2014. Study of Parthian Pottery Indicators in South-Eastern Iran (Makran Region). Scientific-Analytical of Art and Technique. No. 3, pp. 21-44. [in Persian].
Farokhnia, Sh. 2016. Spatial Analysis and Location Model of Ancient Sites by using Geographical Information System (GIS) Case Study: Bastam plain of Shahroud. Studies Archaeology. Volume 8, Number 1, pp. 151-170. [in Persian].
Iranshahr. 1964. Iranshahr. UNESCO National Commission, vol. 2, number 22, p. 1375. [in Persian].
Burney, C. 1970. Excavations at Haftavān Tepe 1968: First Preliminary Report. Iran 8:157–71.
———. 1972. Excavations at Haftavān Tepe 1969: Second Preliminary Report. Iran 10:127–42.
———. 1973. Excavations at Haftavān Tepe 1971: Third Preliminary Report. Iran 11:153–72.
———. 1975. Excavations at Haftavān Tepe 1973: Fourth Preliminary Report. Iran 13:149–64.
Burton-Brown, T. 1951. Excavations in Azerbaijan, 1948. London: John Murray.
Chaichi-Amirkhizi, A. Saeedi-Harsini, M. 2002. A Look at Coffin Burials in Ancient Iran. First Edition, Tehran, Samira. [in Persian].
Colledge, M. 2009. Parthians. Translated by Masoud Rajab Niya, Hirmand, Tehran. [in Persian].
Danti, M. 2016. Azerbaijan in transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. Translated by Samad Aliyoun, first edition, Tabriz, Hasanlu translation project. [in Persian].
Dark, Ken. R. 2008. Theoretical foundations of archaeology. Translated by Kamiyar Abdi, Tehran, academic publication. [in Persian].
Dorner, J. K. Kromer, and A. Lippert. 1974. Die zweite Kampagne der österreichischen Ausgrabungen am Kordlar-tepe. Aserbaidschan. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Vienna 104:111–36.
Dyson, R. Jr. 1958. Iron Age Hasanlu. University Museum Bulletin 22:25–32.
———. 1959. Digging in Iran: Hasanlu. 1958. Expedition 1:4–18.
———. 1960a. Hasanlu and Early Iran. Archaeology 13:118–29.
———. 1960b. Where the Golden Bowl of Hasanlu Was Found: Excavations near Lake Urmia which Throw New Light on the Little-Known Mannaeans: Pt. I. Illustrated London News 236:132–34.
———. 1961a. Excavating the Mannaean Citadel of Hasanlu; and New Light on Several Millennia of Persian Azerbaijan. Illustrated London News, 239:534–37.
———. 1961b. Hasanlu 1960 Campaign. Archaeology 14:63–64.
———. 1962. The Hasanlu Project. Science 135:637–47.
———. 1963a. Expedition News. Hasanlu. Expedition 5:33.
———. 1963b. Hasanlu Discoveries, 1962. Archaeology 16:131–33.
Ehringhaus, H. 1994. Gedanken zur Rekonstruction des Gebaudes Kordlar Tepe IV in Iranisch West-Azerbaidjan. Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 27:49–65.
Flanden, E. 1977. Eugene Flandinʼs Itinerary. Translated by Hossein Noor Sadeghi, third edition, Ishraghi. [in Persian].
Geographical culture of the settlements of Urmia city. 2006. Tehran, Geographical Organization of the Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Support. [in Persian].
Ghandagar, J. 2003. Preliminary report of the archaeological excavations of Zahak Castle (Azhdahak) in Hashtroud. Cultural Heritage Organization, Research Deputy, General Directorate of Cultural Heritage of East Azerbaijan (unpublished). [in Persian].
Ghandagar, J. H. Esmaili. M. Rahmatpour. 2013. Excavation of Zahak Castle in Hashtrood. International Conference on Archaeology of Iran, Northwest Region. Collection of Papers, Urmia. [in Persian].
Ghandagar, J. M. Rahmatpour. 2006. The report of the seventh chapter of the archaeological excavation of Zahak Castle. Archive of cultural heritage of East Azerbaijan, (unpublished). [in Persian].
Haerinck, E. 1998. Iran's pottery during the Parthian period. Translated by Hamide Chubak. First edition, Tehran, Cultural Heritage Organization. [in Persian].
Hamlin [née Kramer], C. 1971. The Habur Ware Ceramic Assemblage of Northern Mesopotamia: An Analysis of Its Distribution. PhD diss. University of Pennsylvania, Dept. of Anthropology. Philadelphia.
———. 1974. The Early Second Millennium Ceramic Assemblage of Dinkha Tepe. Iran 12:125–53.
———. 1975. Dalma Tepe. Iran 13:111–28.
Harris, M.V. 1989. Glimpses of an Iron Age Landscape: Plants at Hasanlu. Expedition 31(2-3): 12–23.
Heydari, R. 1995. Excavation of Tepe Rabat. West Azerbaijan Cultural Heritage Archive, (unpublished). [in Persian].
Jamalzadeh, MA. 1962. Ganj-e Shaygan or the economic situation of Iran. Kaviani, Berlin, 1956, pp. 63-67. [in Persian].
Johnson, H. 2007. Ideas of Landscepe, Londen, Blackwell Publishing.
Kambakhshfard, S. 2014. Parthian pithos tombs. Collegiate. Archeology and history (Appendix No. 1). Tehran, pp. 107-1. [in Persian].
Karegar, B. 1995. Survey and sounding report in Ahranjan Hill and Qara-Tepe of Dasht-e Selmas. West Azerbaijan Cultural Heritage Archive, (unpublished). [in Persian].
Karimi, J. & M. Farajzadeh, Asal. 2004. Analysis of the spatial patterns of ancient settlements in the Shushtar Mianab Plain by using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Modares of human science. No. 35, pp. 113-126. [in Persian].
Kaviani-Pouya, H. 2014. Investigation of influence factors of the relations between Iran and China and its effect on the exchange of medical-pharmaceutical products in the ancient era. Medical History. 7th year, 22nd issue, pp. 72-31. [in Persian].
Khan-Mohammadi, B. & I. Kharazi. 2012. Investigation of settlement patterns in the west of Urmia. Zagros Researches. First year, First issue, pp. 26-35. [in Persian].
Kleiss, W. ed. 1979. Bastam: Ausgrabungen in den Urartaischen Anlagen. Tehraner Forschungen 4–5. Berlin: Mann.
Kowalewski, S. A. 2008. Regional Settlement Pattern Studies, Journal Archaeo Res, vol 16, pp: 225-285.
Lajmiri, M. & M. Zare-Khalili. 2005. Introduction of an ancient site in Ardabil: Gosha Tepe. Bastan-Pazhuhi. No. 12, pp. 81-88. [in Persian].
Lippert, A. 1975. Ausgrabungen am Kordlar Tepe (Persisch-West Aserbeidschan). Antike Welt 6:298–99.
———. 1976. Vorbericht der sterreichischen Ausgrabungenam Kordlar-Tepe in Persisch Aserbaidschan: Kampagne 1974. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Vienna 106:83–112.
———. 1977. Kordlar-Tepe. Iran 15:174–77.
Mafi, F. A. Behnia. & M. Bahramzadeh. 2010. Classification and Typology of Parthian Pottery of Qorveh (Kurdistan), Payam-e Bastan-Shanas, Year 6, Number 12, pp. 85-104. [in Persian].
Maqsoodi, M. H. Fazeli-Nashli. A. Qasim. G. Gwynn & A. Schmidt. 2013. The role of splays in the distribution of prehistoric settlements from the point of view of archaeological geology (Case study: Splays of Jajroud & Haji Arab). Natural Geography Research. Year 44, Number 4, pp. 1-22. [in Persian].
Mirzaie Damirchi, F. 2017. Parthians in Azerbaijan and the reasons for their faint presence in the west of Urmia Lake based on the distribution of the works. Abstract of the articles of the congress on the history of architecture and urban planning of West Azerbaijan province, p. 15. [in Persian].
———. 2019. Report on the Investigation of the west of Urmia Lake. Unpublished. [in Persian].
Molazadeh, K. &. M. Mohammadi. 2006. Encyclopedia of Historical Building of Iran in Islamic Period: Forts and Fortress, Sorey-e- Mehr Publisher, First Print. [in Persian].
Muscarella, O. 1968. Excavations at Dinkha Tepe, 1966. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 27:187–96.
———. 1973b. Excavations at Agrab Tepe, Iran. Metropolitan Museum Journal 8:47–76.
Nami, H. & S.M. Mousavinia. 2019. Archaeological Survey of Parthian Sites in Daregaz, Northeast of Iran. Archaeological Studies. Volume 11, Number 1, pp. 233-252. [in Persian].
Niknami, K. & M. Deh-Pahlan. 2013. Shaping the Silk Road in the Light of Security, a Case Study: Archeological Artifacts and Findings Around the Road from Semnan to Garmsar, Geopolitics, Year 9. Second issue, pp. 230-255. [in Persian].
Noghani, S. 2012. Structural analysis of Jilingi pottery belonging to the Parthian period based on Archaeometric studies, Archaeological Studies. Volume 3, Number 2, pp. 15-34. [in Persian].
Noorollahi, A. 2013. Archaeological survey of Pajadagh Castle (Tashvir Castle) in Tarom. Archeology of Iran. Second year, number 2, pp. 54-76. [in Persian].
Noorollahi, A. 2017. Archaeological excavation of the Parthian site of Tasvir Tarom, Zanjan. Diyar. Year 1, number 2, pp. 1-54. [in Persian].
Pecorella, P. & M. Salvini. 1984. Tra lo Zagrose L’Urmia: Ricerche Storicheed Archeologichenell’ Azerbaigian Iraniano, Incunabula Graeca 78. Roma: Editioni dell Ateneo.
Purfaraj, A. 2017. Explanation and chronology of cultures of the first millennium B.C. in Nir a city in Ardabil Provience. Archaeological studies. Year 9, number 1, pp. 37-54. [in Persian].
Sabzi-du-Ābi, M. A. Hejebri Nobari. F. Khademi-Nadushan. & S.M. Mousavi-Kohper. 2013. Investigation and analysis of the settlement pattern of Khave Plain in the Parthian period. Historical Sociology. Volume 5, Number 2, pp. 63-80. [in Persian].
Sadraei, A. 2019. Archaeological Researches from Beygum Qalea Naqadeh to Rig Abad-e Piranshahr. First edition, Tabriz, Hasanlu translation project. [in Persian].
Saidi Harsini, M. R. K. Niknami. & A. Tahmasabi. 2012. Environment and Culture Interaction: Geographical Perspective and Archaeological Analysis of Central Zagros Copper-Stone Age Settlements. Archaeological Researches of Iran. Second period, number 1, pp. 25-36. [in Persian].
Salimi, S. M. Deh-Pahlvan. & H. Davoodi. 2018. Investigation of the pithosʼs cemeteries of the Parthian period on the eastern side of Zab-e Kuchak River in Sardasht, Northwestern Iran. Archaeological Studies. Volume 10, Number 1. Pp. 135-154. [in Persian].
Sami, A. 2009. Sassanid Civilization. Shiraz, two volumes, the first volume, Fouladvand.
Sarfaraz, Ali-Akbar & Āvarzamani, Fereydoon. 2000. Coins of Iran. Tehran, Organization for Studying and Compiling Humanities Books of Universities (Samt). [in Persian].
Seibert, Jeffry D. 2006. Introduction, in: E.C. Robertson, J.D. Seibert, D.C. Fernandez, and M.U. Zender, (eds.), Space and Spatial analysis in archaeology. Alberta, Canada: University of Calgary press, xiii.
Voigt, M. 1976. Hajji Firuz Tepe: An Economic Reconstruction of a Sixth Millennium Community in Western Iran. Ph.D. diss. University of Pennsylvania, Dept. of Anthropology. Philadelphia.
Wiesehofer, J. 1999. Ancient Iran, from 222 BC to 622 AD. translated by Morteza Sagheb Far, Ghoghnus, Tehran. [in Persian].
Wiesehofer, J. 2014. Parthian Empire and its documents and sources. Translators Group, first edition, Tehran, Farzan. [in Persian].
Young, T.C. Jr. 1959. Excavations at Hasanlu: The Season of 1958. Bulletin of the Philadelphia Anthropological Society 12:5–8.
Zekrgoo, A. H. 1995. Spiritual Identity of The Silk Road, Journal of Iran Shenakht, Vol 5, Mohammad-e-Amin Publisher, pp. 179-197. [in Persian].