The Continuity and Relationship between Meaning and Example in the Tombstone of the Islamic Age of Iran (Case Study of Ram and Stone Lion)

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Graduated with a PhD in Archaeology, Faculty of Geography, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran

2 Associate Professor at the Department of Archaeology, in the Faculty of Geography, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

3 Professor at the Department of Archaeology, in the Faculty of Geography, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

Abstract

The tombstones in the cemeteries are perhaps one of the most semantically complex human works of art beyond them. These tombstones deal with the most important and most painful event in human life, namely death and the hereafter. The tombstones are of great variety, both in general form and in the motifs on which they are placed; Studying the morphology of the gravestones and exploring the human, animal, plant, geometric and other pictures, together they provide valuable information on Iranian-Islamic religious beliefs, historical sociology, and sociology and Give us.  Tombstones, according to religious beliefs and beliefs, and the culture and geography of each region, have significant diversity. Among the most important of this group of tombstones from the point of view of semantics and mythological beliefs are rams and stone lions. This group of tombstones are generally found in the western half of Iran, especially in the northwest and west of Iran.This paper is a descriptive-analytical study of field and library studies, seeking to discover the congruence between form or volume with motifs and ornaments, or the relationship between meanings and patterns in gravestones and lion-like stones found in cemeteries of the era. Islam is Iran. Studies show that the ram and lion tombstone itself is a symbol of greatness , bravery , heroism , greatness and courage , and all the sub - motifs on the body of these works also somehow reflect and associate these traits and meanings And they are completely dependent on the volume or morphology of the tombstones. The tombstones in the cemeteries are perhaps one of the most semantically complex human works of art beyond them.   Finally, it can be concluded that the stone carving artist has chosen these motifs with full knowledge of the meanings of the shape of the tombstones as well as the motifs placed on them. Therefore, he has been looking for the connection and dependence between form and image in his artwork.

Keywords


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Volume 14, Issue 3 - Serial Number 31
October 2022
Pages 169-194
  • Receive Date: 31 July 2019
  • Revise Date: 11 April 2020
  • Accept Date: 14 August 2022
  • First Publish Date: 03 October 2022