Document Type : Research Paper


PhD Student in Archeology, University of Tehran, Tehran .Iran.


 During the late fourth millennium B.C some changes took place in many archaeological sites of south eastern Iran that affected the different aspects of life in the region. By expanding of local cultures in the late 4th millennium B.C, at the same time we are witnessing the presence of proto Elamite cultural materials near some key sites and consequently remarkable increasing in trade exchanges with distant areas. In fact, some evidence of foreign merchants with Banesh/proto Elamite elements that has specialization on storing goods, commodity management and trade in long distances. These evidence have been documented by archaeological excavations near Shahdad, Konar Sandal and Shahr i Sokhta. All these sites are the big cities in the first centuries of third millennium B.C.  It seems that in spite of expansion of Aliabad culture in Kerman, Baluchestan, Makran and near Sistan since 3700 B.C to 3300 B.C that consequently followed by local cultures in each area from 3300 to 3000 B.C, the main factor for starting and developing of urbanization in south east of Iran is connected to presence of proto Elamite culture and building the exchange centers or Bazar in the areas with good potential for the natural resource. These areas became the urban centers in the beginning of third millennium B.C. In fact, the art of those merchants was learning to local people that how to control their valuable resource and crafts for exchange and interaction with the other people.


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