Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate in Islamic Archeology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Archeology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Archeology, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran


As it appears from historical texts, the favourable bioclimatic conditions of the Natanz region and its location in the communication network of Iran’s central plateau, have provided the ground for the formation of numerous settlements, as well as diverse and yet valuable architectural works. Presence of pre-Islamic ancient sites (Such as Arisman ancient site, fire temple, castle, karezes) and also monuments from the Islamic era in Natanz (Such as Juma Mosque, Sheikh Abdul Samad Complex and collections of public, commercial and residential monuments), have turned this city into one of the most valuable ancient settlements in the country; highlighting the importance of the region from prehistoric up to the present century. According to published sources, Natanz's socio-political developments in early-Islamic centuries were influenced by the changes that occurred in the cities of Isfahan and Kashan. Also, the brilliant effects of the historical monuments of Kashan and Isfahan cities have caused the neglect of the monuments of the city of Natanz by tourists and historians of different periods. Neglect that has also affected archaeological, urban, architectural and historical research.
 The authors have tried to determine the evolution of the city of Natanz, relying on the written sources, in order to identify the factors and events that have influenced the formation and development of this city. Results of the present study revealed that the construction history of this city can be traced back to the Sasanian Empire. Moreover, it became clear that Natanz’s location on the communication network of Iran’s central plateau and It has been one of the centers of caravans crossing and trade and the Central Plateau of Iran, and also its geographical location, environmental conditions and the special defensive function of the natanz city Its importance in different historical periods, especially the Ilkhanid and Safavid periods it has figured


Azam V, H. 2017. Natanz Cultural Heritage, Historical Works and Documents, Customs. Vol 1. Tehran: Association of Cultural Works and Honors. [in Persian].
Aubin, E. 2012. Iran Today. Translate by: Ali Asghar Saeedi. Tehran: Naghsh Jahan. [in Persian].
Ataba, M. bin Abdul Jabbar. 1978. Yemeni history. Tehran: cultural science. [in Persian].
Augsaddobd, C. 2005. Lorestan and Khuzestan Travelogue. Translate by: Mohammad Hussein Aria. Tehran: scientific and cultural. [in Persian].
Afoshtei N, M. 1994. Naqawa al-Athar fi Zikr al-Akhyar. By: Ehsan Ishraqi. Tehran: scientific and cultural. [in Persian].
Azhand, Y. 2000. History of Iran during the Timurid period. Tehran: Jami. [in Persian].
Amir Mazaheri, G. 2015. Vesha Castle, a review of historical monuments and events in Natanz. Tehran: Pars Pidora. [in Persian].
A group of authors. 2008. Atlas of Iranian History. Tehran: Iran Mapping Organization. [in Persian].
Afshar, I. 1996. Yazd Memoirs. Tehran: Association of National Works and Honors of Iran. [in Persian].
Blair, S. 2008. Ilkhanid architecture in Natanz. Translate by: Vali Kavousi. Tehran: Iranian Academy of Arts. [in Persian].
Bastani Parizi, M. 1964. Politics and Economy of the Safavid Era. Tehran: Safi Alisha Press Company. [in Persian].
Bayat, A. 1993. Generalities of Natural and Historical Geography of Iran. Tehran: Amirkabir. [in Persian].
Basir, Z. 2012. Study of structure and pathology and presentation of protection and restoration plan of the wooden door of Sheikh Abdolsamad-Nooruddin mosque (monastery) in Natanz (belongs to the eighth century AH). M.A Thesis. Islamic Azad University, Branch Centeral Tehran. [in Persian].
Chardin, J. 1994. Chardin travelogue. translate by: Mohammad Abbasi. Vol 3. Tehran: Amirkabir. [in Persian].
Chardin, J. 1993. Chardin's travelogue. Translate by: Iqbal Yaghmaei. Vol 5. Tehran: Toos. [in Persian].
Delavaleh, P. 1969. Travelogue of Pietro Delavaleh. translate by: Shoaeddin Shafa. Tehran: book translation and publishing company. [in Persian].
Dalmani, H.1999. Travelogue from Khuzestan to Bakhtiari. translate by: Gholamreza Samiei, Vol 2. Tehran: Tavous. [in Persian].
Dehghanian, A. 2008. Comprehensive Culture of Language and Dialect of Natanz. Tehran: glorious. [in Persian].
Diolafova, J. 2011. Madame Diolafova's travelogue. translate by: Homayoun Fareh vashi. Tehran: Book World. [in Persian].
Dehkhoda, A. 1958. Dehkhoda Dictionary, Tehran: University of Tehran. [in Persian].
Etemad Al-Saltanah, M. Hassan Ibn Ali. 1984. Tarikh Montazem Naseri. vols 2 and 3. Tehran: World of Books. [in Persian].
Figueroa. 1984. Dan Garcia Desilova, Travelogue of Figueroa. translate by: Gholamreza Samiei. Tehran: Publication No. [in Persian].
Floor, W. 2008. Divan and the army in the Safavid era. Translate by: Kazem Firoozmand. Tehran: agah. [in Persian].
Falsafi, N. 1960. Life of Shah Abbas Aval. vol 3. Tehran: Kayhan book. [in Persian].
Figueroa, D. 1984. Travelogue of Figueroa, translate by: Gholamreza Samiei, Tehran: Publication No. [in Persian].
Godard, A. 2009. Iranian works. translate by: Abolhassan Sarvaghad Moghadam. Mashhad: Research of Quds Razavi province. [in Persian].
Ghorbali, E. 2013. Natanz Monuments in the Era of Shah Abbas I Safavid. M.A Thesis. Al-Zahra University. [in Persian].
Herbert, T. 1982. Trip to Iran. Translate by: Sir William Forster. Tehran: Publishing and Translation Company. [in Persian].
Honarfar, L. 2008. Isfahan, vol 1. Tehran: Scientific and cultural publication. [in Persian].
Hamavi, Y. 1994. Mojam al baladan. Vol 8. Translate by: Ali Naghi Manzavi. Tehran: Cultural Heritage. [in Persian].
Hamedani, I. Faqih. 1981. Al-Baldan. Translate by: Ali Masoudi. Tehran: University of Tehran [in Persian].
Heidari, H. Fallahian Wadghani. A. 2017. The Social Image of the Jews of Kashan in the Safavid Period.  Pazhouhesh nameh Kashan. 11. 104-121. [in Persian].
Ibn Hawql, M. 1987. Surah Al-Ard. Translate by: Jafar Shear. vol 2. Tehran: Amirkabir. [in Persian].
Ibn Khaldun, A. Abdul Rahman bin Muhammad. 1984. History of Ibn Khaldun. Translate by: Abdul Mohammad Ayati. Tehran: Institute of Studies and Research. [in Persian].
Ibn Rustah, A. Ibn Umar. 1992. Al-Alaq Al-Nafisa. Translate by: Hossein Qara Chanloo. Tehran: Amirkabir. [in Persian].
Ibn Khordadbeh, A. 1992. Masalak al-Malak. Translate by: Saeed Khakrand. Tehran: Miras Melal. [in Persian].
Isfahani, H. Ibn Mohammad Ibrahim Khan. 1913. Naseri Collection, Manuscript. Tehran: University of Tehran. [in Persian].
Isfahani, M. bin Mohammad Reza, 1994. Half the world in the definition of Isfahan. By: Manouchehr Sotoudeh. Tehran: scientific and cultural. [in Persian].
Istakhri, A. Ishaq Ibrahim bin Mohammad Farsi. 1992. Masalak al-Mamalak. By: Iraj Afshar. Tehran: scientific and cultural. [in Persian].
Imamate of Kashani, M. 1994. Tazkereh Imamzadehgan Agha Ali Abbas. Qom: Ney. [in Persian].
Inoue, A. 2004. Iran and me; Memoirs and Notes of a Japanese Inju. Translate by: Hashem Rajabzadeh. Tehran: Cultural Research Office. [in Persian].
Jayhani, A. Ibn Ahmad. 1989. Ashkal Al Alam. translate by: Ali Ibn Abdul Salam Katib. Tehran: publishing company. [in Persian].
Jafarian, R. 2008. The intellectual and political life of Shiite Imams. Qom: Ansarian. [in Persian].
Jafarian, R. 2000. Safavid in the field of religion, culture and politics. Vol 2. Qom: Research Institute and University. [in Persian].
Jami, A. 1987. Nafhat Alans. Tehran: Saadi. [in Persian].
Jafari, J. Ibn Mohammad. 2005. History of Yazd. Vol 1.Tehran: Scientific and Cultural . [in Persian].
Katef, Gh. 1977. Katef Travelogue. translate by: Mohammad Sadegh Homayounfar. Tehran: National Library of Iran. [in Persian].
Kari, J. 1969. Jami Kari travelogue, translate by: Abbas Nakhjavani and Abdul Ali Karung. Tabriz: East Azerbaijan Culture and Art Department. [in Persian].
Kontarini, A. 1982. Kontarini travelogue. translate by: Ghodratolah Roshani. Tehran: Amirkabir. [in Persian].
Kashani Natanzi, I. al-Din Mahmoud. 1946. Mesbah al-Hedayeh and Muftah al-Kifaya. Tehran: Sanai. [in Persian].
Karimian, H. Ahmadi, A. 2008. Determination of land use and chronology, Isfahan Shahid Castle-Castle based on the results of archaeological excavations. Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran. 59. 79-110. [in Persian].
Karimian, H. 2006. Physical and Visual Identity of Sassanid Cities. in Proceedings of the First International Congress on the History of Architecture and Urbanism of Iran, Bam: Cultural Heritage Organization. Vol 5. 5-6. [in Persian].
Khwand Mir, Gh. al-Din ibn Hammam al-Din. 2001. History of Habib al-Sir in the news of human beings. vol 3. translate by: Mohammad Dabir Siyaghi. Tehran: Khayyam. [in Persian].
Lockhart, L. 2004. Safavid Dynasty. Translate by: Ismail Dolatshahi. Tehran: scientific and cultural. [in Persian].
Lestering, G. 1986. Historical Geography of the Eastern Caliphate. Translate by: Mahmod Erfani. Tehran: scientific and cultural. [in Persian].
Levy, H. 1960. Jewish History of Iran. Tehran: Brokhim Library. [in Persian].
Mostofi, H. 2002. Nozha al-Qulub. by Mohammad Dabir Siyaghi. Tehran: Hadis Emrooz. [in Persian].
Moghaddasi, A. Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Ahmad. 1982. Ahsan Al-Taqasim Fi Maarefa Al-Aqalim. Translate by: Ali Naghi Monzavi. Tehran: Authors and Translators Company. [in Persian].
Mirza Ebrahim. 1976. Travelogue of Astarabad, Mazandaran and Gilan. compiled by Massoud Golzari. Tehran: Iranian Culture Foundation. [in Persian].
Maureen, V. B. 2005. "Safavid" of Esther's children. by Hooman Sarshar. Translate by: Mehrnaz Nasrieh. Tehran: Karang. [in Persian].
Monshi Kermani, N. 1985. Nasaim al-Ashar men Lata'im al-Akhbar in the history of ministers. By: Mir Jalal al Din Hosseini Armavi. Tehran: Etelaat. [in Persian].
Mahdavi, M. 2009. Isfahan announcement. By: GHolamreza Nasrollahi. vol 2. Isfahan: Isfahan Municipality Cultural and Recreational Organization. [in Persian].
Momeni, H. undated. Jashn Baghbad. Gendarmerie Magazine of the whole country. 19(219).31-61. [in Persian].
Mandegari, H. 2012. Recognition and revival plan of the Natanz Friday Mosque complex - a study of the two-way relationship between the mosque and the bazaar neighborhood in the city center (town) of Natanz. M.A Thesis. Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch. [in Persian].
Naraghi, H. 1973. Manifestations of Achaemenid civilization in the works of the Safavid era. Journal of Art and People. 11 (127). [in Persian].
Naraghi, H. 2005. Historical monuments of Natanz and Kashan. Tehran: cultural monuments and celebrities. [in Persian].
Nizamat al-Saltanah Mafi, H. 1984. Memoirs and documents of Hossein Gholi Khan. Tehran: History of Iran. [in Persian].
Olearius, A. 1990. Olearius Travelogue (Iranian section). Translate by: Ahmad Behpour. Tehran: Ebtekar. [in Persian].
Pardolamaz. 1991. Pardolamaz's travelogue report from Shamakhi to Isfahan, Amazing letters of French priests during the Safavid and Afshari eras. Translate by: Bahram Fareh vashi. Tehran: Young Thought Scientific Institute. [in Persian].
Qajar, M. 1985. Seif al-Dawla travelogue. by: Ali Akbar Khodaparast. Tehran: Ney Publishing. [in Persian].
Ghobadian, V. 2004. Climatic study of traditional Iranian buildings. Tehran: University of Tehran. [in Persian].
Qazvini, Y. bin Abdul Latif. 2007. Lab al-Tawarikh. Tehran: Association of Cultural Works and Honors. [in Persian].
Qazvini, M. T. 1950. Abbas nameh. Arak: anonymous. [in Persian].
Qomi, Judge A. 2004. Summary of Chronicles. translate by: Ehsan Ishraqi. Tehran: University of Tehran. [in Persian].
Quchani, A. Shirazi. B. 1988. Study of historical inscriptions of the Natanz complex and the Nain Mosque. Athar. 26 – 27.132-142. [in Persian].
Qazvini, V. 2004, Jahan Arai Abbasi. By: Saeed Mir Mohammad Sadegh. Tehran: Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies. [in Persian].
Raher Bern, K. 2004. The system of states in the Safavid period. translate by: Kikavous Jahandari. Tehran: book translation and publishing company. [in Persian].
Razmara, H. 1953. Geographical Culture of Iran. Vol 3. Tehran: Geographical Organization of the Army. [in Persian].
Romlu, H. 2005. Ahsan Al-Tawarikh. translate by: Abdolhossein Navai, Tehran: Asatir. [in Persian].
Riyazi, M. 2005. Jadeh Abrisham: Formation and Background. Athar. 2. 48-54. [in Persian].
Rafiei Mehrabadi, A. 1973. National Works of Isfahan. Tehran: National Works and Honors Association of Iran. [in Persian].
Siro, M. 1991. Ancient roads in Isfahan and related buildings. translate by: Mehdi Mashayekhi. Tehran: National Organization for the Protection of Antiquities. [in Persian].
Sykes, P. 1957. General Percy Sykes's Travelogue or Ten Thousand Miles in Iran. translate by: Hossein Saadat Nouri. Tehran: Ibn Sina. [in Persian].
Samani, A. Ibn Mohammad. 1965. Ansab. Qom: Ahl al-Bayt Research and Publication Institute. [in Persian].
Sayyid Hassan al-Husseini. known as Sayyid Hassan Waqif. endowment letter of Hassan Waqif 85 H.GH. Original version, trustees. [in Persian].
Shirvani, Z. al-Abedin bin Iskandar. 1936. Bostan al-Siyaha. Tehran: offset. [in Persian].
Sheila, B. 1986, A Medieval Persian Builder, The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians,45,4, 389-395.
Stoddart, R., 1960. Stoddart Travelogue. By: Sardnis Ross, translate by: Ahmad Tavakoli. Tehran: Farhang Iran Zamin. [in Persian].
Samarkandi, A. Ibn Ishaq. 1993. Informed Saadin and the Bahrain Assembly. vol 1. By: Mohammad Shafi, compiled by: Abdul Hussein Nawai, Tehran: Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies. [in Persian].
Turkman, I. 2003. History of the Abbasid world. By: Iraj Afshar. Tehran: Amirkabir. [in Persian].
Taronieh, J B. 1957. Taronieh Travelogue. translate by: Abu Trab Nouri. By: Hamid Shirvani, Vol 2, Tehran: Sanai Library. [in Persian].
Tatavyi, A. Ibn Nasrallah. Un dated. al-Tarfi history. placeless. [in Persian].
Taghizadeh Ansari, B. 2007. Natanz Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Karaj: Author (Taghizadeh Ansari). [in Persian].
Tavassoli, H. 1993. Collection of Sheikh Abdul Samad Buildings in Natanz. M.A Thesis. Tarbiat Modares University. [in Persian].
Valeh, M. No date. Mirhashem Mohaddes. Tehran: Dr. Mahmoud Afshar. [in Persian].
Yaghoubi, I. 1969. Yaghoubi History. Tehran: Translation and Publishing Company. [in Persian].
Zarabi, A. Ibn Mohammad Ibrahim. 1999. History of Kashan. Vol 1. Tehran: Iranian Culture. [in Persian].