Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Nima, Mahmod abad, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran

3 PHD Candidate, Department of Archaeology, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran. Faculty Member of Nima University, Mahmod abad, Iran


Present paper review 350 sites from Middle Paleolithic, upper Paleolithic, Epipaleolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, respectively, 4, 9, 6, 28, 36, 15 and 252 sites. Pearson correlation coefficient test indicates a meaningful relationship between number of sites through every single period and other variations including longitude, distance to river and climate. Some 60.9% of sites located at -26 m to 500 m longitude, including fertile plains and foothills that reward seashore and marine sources. Most of the sites locates at the eastern part of the region that is generally plains with low humidity and precipitation. There are 18.1% of Iron Age sites at 1000-1500 m longitude that consist of seasonal settlements of mountain valleys. There is not meaningful relation between number of sites and slope variable. Most of the sites locates at 0-1500 m far from rivers. Considering analysis about settlement patterns in prehistoric sites of the region, number of Middle Paleolithic to Chalcolithic sites suggest an ascending process, however, they the number decreases during Bronze Age. Then, the sites increase during Iron Age, which indicate ties between high density of settlements and high capacity of environment. Finally, the average area of settlements increased from Neolithic to Bronze Ages, then decreased during Iron Age.


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