Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Archaeology, University of Tehran.


Abstract: Sar-e Pol-e Zahab region in the western of Central Zagros is located between Central Zagros highland and Mesopotamia and Khorasan high road as only western- eastern road passes from that. In other hand this road after passing Sar-e Pol-e Zahab enter to Qasr-e Shirin and Mesopotamia low lands. Therefore, this region is very important in archaeological studies of Central Zagros and Mesopotamia. However, unfortunately, a few archaeological researches have been done in this region. The present study aims in representing a perspective about the Sar-e Pol-e Zahab during the Akkadian period as well as reviewing the written documents regarding the mutual relations and Akkadian cylinder seals discovered in archeological excavations in order to help the interpretations about the presence of Akkadians in this region. In this paper we will discuss about the  Mountainous Passage of western Central Zagros and Khorasan High Road on the Akkadian Seals and will explain the loucation of Sar-e Pol-e Zahab on the Akkadian Seals.


استولپر، متیو ولفگانگ، (1389)، تاریخ ایلام، ترجمه شهرام خلیلیان، تهران، توس.
حاکمی، علی (1347)، «سنگ نبشتۀ مربوط به زمان مردوک آپال ایدین (1117-1129 ق.م) مکشوفه در پل ذهاب، کودورو»، باستان­شناسی و هنر ایران 1: 71-68.
راد، محمود، (1338)، اطلاعاتی اجمالی در مورد چند محل تاریخی در مغرب ایران، گزارش­های باستان­شناسی 3: 16-309.
گیرشمن، رومن، (1390)، هنر ایران در دوران ماد و هخامنشی، تهران، علمی فرهنگی.
علی­بیگی، سجاد؛ شکوه خسروی؛ محسن حیدری؛ فرهاد فتاحی؛ محمد جواد جعفری؛ تورج صادقی؛ حمدالله شیخ­حسینی؛ ناصر امینی­خواه؛ جبار سلیمیان و سمیه زینلی، (1395)، «بررسی در کوهپایه­های غربی زاگرس: نگاهی به دستاوردهای مقدماتی بررسی­های اخیر در منطقه سرپل­زهاب»، گزارش­های باستان­شناسی 15، تهران: سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری، پژوهشگاه میراث فرهنگی: 443-436.
مجیدزاده، یوسف، (1380)، تاریخ و تمدن بین­النهرین، جلد اول: تاریخ سیاسی، تهران، مرکز نشر دانشگاهی.
مجیدزاده، یوسف، (1382)، جیرفت: کهن­ترین تمدن شرق، تهران، وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی.
هنریکسون، رابرت، (1395)، «شهرک دوره گودین III»، در: گوپنیک، هیلاری و میشل راثمن، در مسیر شاهراه، پژوهش­های باستان­شناختی در گودین تپه، ترجمه: محمد امین میرقادری و هادی صبوری زیر نظر سید محمد کاظم موسوی بجنوردی، تهران، مرکز دائره المعارف بزرگ اسلامی: 267-193.
Abdi, K., and Beckman, G., 2007, “An Early Second-Millennium Cuneiform Archive from Chogha Gavaneh Western Iran”, JCS 59: 39-91.
Ahmed, K. M., 2012, “The beginnings of ancient Kurdistan (c. 2500- 1500 BC): a Historical and Cultural Synthesis.” PhD Dissertation. Leiden University.
Borger, R., 1970, “Vier Grenzsteinurkunden Merodachbaladans I. von Babylonien”. AfO 23: 1-26.
Brisch, N. 2013. History and chronology. In: Crawford, H. (ed.). The Sumerian World. Routledge. New York. Pp: 111-128.
Brisch, N. 2016. Water in Sumerian Mythology. In: Madsen, J.K., Andersen, N.O. and Thuesen, I. (eds.). Water of life : Essays from a symposium held on the occasion of Peder Mortensen's 80th birthday. Proceedings of the Danish Institute in Damascus 11. Forlaget Orbis. Copenhagen. Pp: 18-26.
Carter, E. 1986. The piedmont and the Pusht–I Kuh in the early third millennium B.C.. In: Huot, J. L. (ed.), Prehistoire de la Mesopotamie, Paris: 73-83.
Collins, P. 2016. Mountains and Lowlands: Ancient Iran and Mesopotamia, Ashmolean: Museum, University of Oxford.
Collon, D. 1987. First Impretions Cylinder Seals in The Ancient Near East. British Museum Publications.
Collon, D., 1982. Catalogue of the Western Asi-1. London.
Crawford, H. 1991. Sumer and Sumerians. Cambridge University press.
Dittmann, R. 1994. Glyptikgruppen am Übergang von der Akkad- zur Ur III-Zeit. Baghdader Mitteilungen (BaM) 25. Pp: 75-120.
Eppihimer, M, 2010. Assembling King and State: The Statues of Manishtushu and the Consolidation of Akkadian Kingship. American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 114(3): 365-380.
Foster, B.R. 2005. Before the Muses: an Anthology of Akkadian Literature. 3rd edition. Bethesda, MD: CDL Press.
Frankfort,  H. 1955. Stratified Cylinder Seals from The Diyala Region, The University Of Chicago Press, Chicago, 40.
Frankfort, H. 1934. Gods and Myths on Sargonid Seals. Iraq 1: 2-29
Frayn, D. 1994. The Early Dynastic list Geographical Names. American Oriental Society 74.
 Frayne, D. 1999. The Zagros Campaigns of Sulgi and Amar-Suena. Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians 10: 141-201.
Frayne, D.R. 1993. Sargonic and Gutian Periods (2334-2113 BC) (The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Early periods, 2). Toronto - Buffalo – London. University of Toronto Press.
Goetze, A. 1968. Akkad Dynasty Inscriptions from Nippur. American Oriental Society 88(1):54-59.
Gopnik, H. 2011. Making Sense of the Mound: Archaeological Interpretation at Godin. In: Gopnik, H And Rothman, M. S. 2011. On The High Road, The History Of Godin Tepe Iran. Bibliotheca Iranica: Archaeology Art And Architecture Series 1: 21-49
Hallo,  W. 1971. “Gutium”.Reallexikonder  Assyriologie III: 708-20.
Hamblin, W, J. 2006. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC, Holy Warriors at the Dawn of History. Rutledge, New York.
Henrickson, R.C. 1984. Šimaški and Central Western Iran: The Archaeological Evidence, Zeitschriftfür Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie 74: 98-122.
Henrickson, R.C. 2011. The Godin Period III Town. In: Gopnik, H And Rothman, M.S (eds.), On The High Road: The History Of Godin Tepe Iran, Bibliotheca Iranica, Archaeology Art and Architecture Series1: 209-282.
Herzfeld, E., 1920, Am Tor von Asien. Felsdenkmale aus Irans Heldenzeit, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Hintz, W. 1966 . Nachlese Elamischer Denkmaler. IrAn 6: 43–47.
Hintz, W. 1971. Persia, c. 2400-1800 B.C. In: I.E.S. Edwards, C.J. Gadd  and N.G.L. Hammond (eds.). The Cambridge ancient history, Vol. 1 part. 2. University of Cambridge: 36-337.
Kantor, H.J. 1966. Landscape in Akkadian Art Source: Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 25, No. 3 145-152.
Lambert, M. 1979. Le prince de SuseIlish-mani, etl'Elam de Naram-Sin à Ibisin. Journal asiatique 267: 11-40.
Levin, Y. 2002. Nimrod the Mighty, King of Kish, King of Sumer and Akkad. VetusTestamentum52(3): 350-366.
Liverani, M. 2014. The ancient near east: history, society and economy. Translated by Soraia Tabatabai. Routledge New York.
Luckenbill, D. D.  1927. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, vol. II, Chicago.
Luckenbill, D.D. 1923. Akkadian Origins.The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 40, No. 1: 1-13.
Mirghaderi, M.A., and Alibaigi, S., 2018. The Toponym “Land of Bel” in the Haladiny Inscription. NABU 2018, 106-108.
Nigro, L. 1998. The Two Steles of Sargon: Iconology and Visual Propaganda at the Beginning of Royal Akkadian Relief.Iraq 60: 85-102.
Oberlander, T. 1965. The Zagros streams: A new interpretation of transverse drainage in an Orogenic Zone. Syracuse Geographical Series No. 1, Syracuse University Press, New York.
Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology Of Elam, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Potts, T.F. 1993. Patterns Of Trade In Third-Millennium BC Mesopotamia And Iran, World Archaeology 24 (3): 379-402.
Reade, J.E. 1991. Mesopotamia. London, The British Museum Press.
Renette, R. 2013.  Thetrans- Tigridiancorridor in the early Third Mi. B.C. In: De Graef, K and Tavernier, J. (eds.). Susa and Elam; Archaeological, Philological, Historical and Geographical Perspectives. Proceedings of the International Congress Held at Ghent University, December 14–17, 2009. Leiden, Boston.Pp: 43-50.
Rothman, M.S. 2011. The Environment Of Godin Tepe. In: H. Gopnik And M.S. Rothman (eds.), On The High Road: The History Of Godin Tepe Iran, Bibliotheca Iranica, Archaeology Art And Architecture Series1: 49-66
Sallaberger, W. and Schrakamp, I. 2015. Sargonic Rule in Mesopotamia. In: Walther Sallaberger & Ingo Schrakamp (Eds.). History & Philology (= Arcane III), Brepols, Turnhout: 105-113
Sax, M. Collon, D. and Leese, M.N. 1993. The Availability of Raw Materials for near Eastern Cylinder Seals during the Akkadian. Iraq 55: 77-90.
Stienkeller, P. 1980. The old Akkadian terms for Eastern, Revue dAssyriologie 47: 1-9
Stienkeller, P. 1982. The question of Marhashi: a contribution to the  historical  geography of Iran  in the  third  millennium B.C.. ZA 72(2): 237-65.
Stolper, M.W. 1984. Political history. In: E. Carter and  M. Stolper  (eds.). Elam: Surveys of Political  History and Archaeology, University of California Publications: Near Eastern Studies No. 25: 1-100.
Vidale, M. 2015. Searching for Mythological Themes on the 'Jiroft' Chlorite Artefacts. Iranica Antiqua 50: 15-5
Von Der Osten, H., H. 1929. Ancient Oriental SealsIn The Collection OfMr. Edward T. Newell. University Of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois.
Ward, H.W. 1910. The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, The Carnegie Institution Of Washington, Washington, D.C.