Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student of Historical Period in Archaeology, Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Scientific member of Iranian Center for Archaeological Research (ICAR)

3 Scientific Member of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

4 Physics and Accelerators Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran


Elemental analysis and chemical composition of ancient glasses are widely used to determine the glass type, technique and raw materials used in their production and recipes. The results of elemental analysis of 23 glass vessels dated to the early Islamic periods kept in the Iran National Museum presented in this paper. The samples discovered during archaeological excavations in several Islamic sites. Elemental analysis of these samples done by micro-PIXE technique.The major and trace elements existing in these samples are measured. Glass type, raw material used in their production process and colorant (coloring agent) of the glasses in diverse sites investigated and determined based on our results. The results show that the glasses found in all sites are high soda-lime-silica glasses.
The results of the study compared with Iranian samples of the Corning Museum and glasses of Fustat and Qasr al-Hair. Since the amounts of magnesium oxide and potassium oxide in all analyzed samples but one sample are more than 2.5%, with the exception S10,S17. It is clear that the ashes obtained from halophytic plants considered as supplying source for sodium oxide. Sample 10 of this study as a natron–based glass fitted to a group labeled by N-1 (Levantine I) from eastern Mediterranean region.The results also show that the metal oxides such as manganese oxide, iron oxide, copper oxide, chromium oxide and cobalt oxide used in the samples as "coloring agent" or "decolorizing agent".


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