Document Type : Research Paper


1 PHD of Archaeology of Tehran University

2 Tehran university . Archaeology department


The isotopic analysis solves many important issues in archeology and anthropology including the reconstruction of past diets, tracing the footsteps of the ancient migrations and recognition of climate change. Stable isotope analysis has been applied in archaeology during the last three decades to address questions regarding the paleoclimatology, palaeodietary and palaeomobility. In this research, we focus on the human skeleton remains of Iron Age cemetery of Gohar Tepe, using Strontium stable isotope analysis to reconstruction the aspects of the past mobility. At the same time we tried to identify the geographical origin of people that buried in residential areas or ancient cemeteries. This approach in a geological region could make a substantial contribution to assess various aspects including migration models, cultural changes, colonialism and trade. Also research related to the palaeomigration has long been done by different analytical methods. Gohar Tepe is one of the areas that able to respond multiple questions about social and cultural developments of Iron Age in northern Iran. Tooth samples obtained from skeletons of the mentioned site where studied through Strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) were used to address the question of whether the skeletons are local or non-local. Result of 87Sr/86Sr revealed that six of samples could be considered as local and five others to have been c as non-local.


شیخ شعاعی، ف، موسوی کوهپر، س. م.، وحدتی نسب، ح.؛ (1390) "بازسازی رژیم غذایی محوطة باستانی گوهرتپة مازندران بر اساس آنالیز ایزوتوپی نمونه‌های دندانی به دست آمده از آن محوطه"، مجلة مطالعات باستان شناسی (مجلة سابق دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی دانشگاه تهران)، دورة 3، شمار 2، پاییز و زمستان 1390، شمار پیاپی 4، صص:14-1.
شیخ شعاعی، ف.، موسوی کوهپر، س. م.؛ (1396) "ماهی آب شیرین، منبع غذایی مورد استفاده توسط ساکنان محوطه باستانی گوهر تپه مازندران"، مجله پژوهش های باستان شناسی ایران؛ دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، دوره هفتم، شماره 13، تابستان 1396، صص: 257-243.
ماهفروزی، ع.؛ (1384) "گزارش توصیفی فصل چهارم کاوش باستان شناسی،گوهر تپه رستم کلا – مازندران"، سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری استان مازندران.
فروزانفر، ف.؛ (1384) "گزارش انسان شناسی گوهر تپه بهشهر"، گزارش توصیفی فصل چهارم کاوش باستان شناسی گوهر تپه رستم­کلا – مازندران، سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری استان مازندران.
Aberg G., 1995. The use of natural Strontium isotopes as tracers in environmental studies, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 79: 309-322.
Bentley, R.A., 2006. Strontium isotopes from the earth to the archaeological skeleton: A review, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 13: 135-187.
Bentley, R.A., & Knipper, C., 2005. Geographical patterns in biologically available Strontium, carbon and Oxygen isotope signatures in prehistoric SW Germany, Archaeometry 47: 629-644.
Bentley, R.A., Price, T.D., and Stephan, E., 2004. Determining the local 87Sr/86Sr range for archaeological skeletons: a case study from Neolithic Europe, Journal of Archaeological Science 31: 365-375.
Blum J. D., Taliaferro E. H., Weisse M. T., Holmes R. T., 2000. Changes in Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr ratios between two forest ecosystems in the northeastern USA, Biogeochemistry 49: 87-101.
Brown, T., and Brown, K., 2011. Bimolecular archaeology: an introduction to, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Burton J. H., Price T. D., Middleton W. D., 1999. Correlation of bone Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca due to biological purification of calcium, Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 609-616.
Chamberlain C. P., Blum J. D., Holmes R. T., Feng X., Sherry T. W., Graves G. R., 1997. The use of isotope tracers for identifying populations of migratory birds, Oecologia 109: 132-141.
Comar C. L., Russell R. S., Wasserman R. H., 1957. Strontium calcium movement from soil to man, Science 126:485–492.
Comar C. L., Wasserman R. H., Ullberg S., Andrews G. A., 1957. Strontium metabolism and strontium-calcium discrimination in man, proceedings of the society for experimental biology and medicine 95: 386-391.
Ericson, Jonathon E. 1985. Strontium isotope characterization in the study of prehistoric human ecology, Journal of Human Evolution 14: 503-514.
Faure, G. 1986. Principles of isotope geology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Gosz J. R., Brookins D. G., Moore D. I. 1983. Using Strontium isotope ratios to estimate inputs into ecosystems, Bioscience 33: 23-30.
Grupe G., Price T. D., Schroter P., Sollner F., Johnson C. M., Beard B. L., 1997. Mobility of Bell Beaker people revealed by Strontium isotope ratios of tooth and bone: a study of southern Bavarian skeletal remains, Applied Geochemistry 12: 517-525.
Harvig, L., Douglas Price, T. and Lynnerup, L., 2014. Strontium isotope signals in cremated Petrous portions as indicator for childhood origin, Plos one 9 (7).
Hillson S., 1996. Dental anthropology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hillson, S., 2005. Teeth, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Killgrove, K., 2013. Biohistory of the Roman Republic: the potential of isotope analysis of human skeleton remain, Post-Classical Archaeologies 3: 41-62.
Killgrove, K., 2010. Identifying immigrants to Imperial Rome using Strontium isotope analysis. Roman Diasporas, Hella Eckardt (ed.), Portsmouth, Rhode Island.
Knudson, K.J., Price, T.D., Buikstra, J.E. & Blom, D.E., 2004. The use of strontium isotope analysis to investigate Tiwanaku migration and mortuary ritual in Bolivia and Peru, Archaeometry 46: 5-18.
Koch P. L., Halliday A. N., Walter L. N., Stearley R. F., Huston T. J., Smith G. R., 1992. Sr isotopic composition of hydroxyapatite from recent and fossil salmon: the record of lifetime migration and diagenesis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 108: 277-287.
Kusaka, K., Ando, A., Nakano, N., Yumoto, T., Ishimaru, E., Yoneda, M., Hyodo, F., Katayama, K., 2009. A strontium isotope analysis on the relationship between ritual tooth ablation and migration among the Jomon people in Japan, Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 2289–2297.
Parfitt A. M., 1983. The physiologic and clinical significance of bone histomorphometric data, in: Recker R.R., (ed.), bone histomorphometry: techniques and interpretation,CRC Press, Boca, pp. 143-244.
Raton- Pierret M.C., Chabaux F., Leroy S.A.G., Causse C., 2012. A record of Late Quaternary continental weathering in the sediment of the Caspian Sea: evidence from UeTh, Sr isotopes, trace element and palynological data, Quaternary Science Reviews 51: 40-55.
Price, T.D., and Burton, J.H., 2010. An introduction to archaeological chemistry, New York, Springer.
Price, T. D., Burton, J. H. & Bentley, R.A. 2002. The characterization of biologically available strontium isotope ratios for the study of prehistoric migration, Archaeometry 44 (1): 117-135.
Price T. D., Grupe G., Schroter P., 1998. Migration in the Bell Beaker period of central Europe, Antiquity 72:405–411.
Price, T.D., Grupe, G. & Schroter, P. 1994. Reconstruction of migration patterns in the Bell Beaker period by stable Strontium isotope analysis, Applied Geochemistry 9: 413-417.
Schoeninger M. J., 1979. Diet and status at Chalcatzingo: some empirical and technical aspects of strontium analysis, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 51: 295-310.
Schroeder, H.A., Tipton, I.H. & Nason, A.P., 1972. Trace metals in man: Strontium and Barium, Journal of Chronic Disease 19: 545-571.
Schweissing, M.M. and Grupe, G., 2003. Stable Strontium isotopes in human teeth and bone: a key to migration events of the late Roman period in Bavaria, Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 1373–1383.
Sealy, J.C., Van der Merwe, N.J., Sillen, A., Kruger, F.J. & Krueger, H.W., 1991. 87Sr/86Sr as a dietary indicator in modern and archaeological bone, Journal of Archaeological Science 18: 399-416.
Shaw, B., Summerhayes, G.R., Buckley, H.R. & Baker, J.A., 2009. The use of Strontium isotopes as an indicator of migration in human and pig Lapita populations in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 1079-1091.
Sillen, A. & Kavanagh, M. 1982. Strontium and paleodietary research: a review, Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 25: 67-90.
Slovak N. M., Paytan A., 2011. Applications of Sr isotopes in archaeology, in: M. Baskaran (ed.), advances in isotope geochemistry, Springer, pp. 743-768.
Sołtysiak A., Mahfroozi A., 2008. Short fieldwork report: Gohar Tepe and Goldar Tepe (Iran), seasons 2006–2007, Bioarchaeology of the Near East 2: 71–77.
Veizer J., 1989. Strontium isotopes in seawater through time, Annual Review Earth and Planetary Sciences 17:141–167.