Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology Faculty of Art and Architecture Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology Faculty of Art and architecture Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran


‌Southern basin of Urmia Lake has faced the significant political, cultural, and artistic evolutions during the first millennium BC. Rising and development of local governments caused progresses in arts especially in the metal working productions. Gargul belt was discovered fragmentarily in 2009 at Gargul village about 35 Km to Hasanlu. The belt was discovered as nine fragmentary pieces of a 95 cm bronze plate. The main centrally decoration of the belt has been worked on the buckle. Although, manufacturer did not focus on details in Gargul belt, apparently the depictions inspired by Assyrian and created out by local artist. At 1st millennium BC, there are local, Assyrian, Urartu, and sometimes Schythian artistic styles at southern basin of Urmia Lake, however, Gargul belt clearly would introduce a local artistic style that is apparent in the findings from Hasanlu, Ziwyeh and Ghalaichi which have been  partially comparable to Mannaean art. The belt of Gargul can be attributed to one of rulers or commanders of Gilzanu at 2nd half of 9th century or later when the Solduz plain was occupied by Urartuians.


پرادا، ایدت (1357)، هنر ایران باستان، یوسف مجیدزاده، تهران، دانشگاه تهران.
خان‌محمدی، بهروز (1390)، «آرامگاهی از عصر آهن در بایزیدآباد نقده، آذربایجان­غربی»، باستان‌پژوهی، س. 2 و 3، ش. 8 و 9،  صص159-173.
گیرشمن، رمان (1371)، هنر ایران در دوران ماد و هخامنشی، چ. 2، عیسی بهنام، تهران، علمی و فرهنگی.
Albenda, P., 1978. Of Gods, men and monsters on Assyrian seals. The Biblical Archaeologist 41 (1): 17-22.
Canby, J. V., 1971. Decorated garments in Ashurnasirpal's sculpture. Iraq 33 (1): 31-53.
Danti, M., and Cifarelli, M., 2015. Iron II warrior burials at Hasanlu Tepe, Iran. Iranica Antiqua 50: 61-157.
de Schauensee, M., 1988. Northwest Iran as a Bronze working centre: The view from Hasanlu, in: J. Curtis, (ed.), Bronze working centres of Western Asia c. 1000–539 B.C., London and New York: Kegan Paul pp. 45–62.
Hamilton, R. W., 1965. The decorated Bronze strip from Gushchi, Anatolian Studies 15: 41-51.
King, L. W. M.A., Litt.D., 1915. Bronze reliefs from the gates of Shalmaneser King of Assyria B.C. 860-825. London, Oxford University Press.
Layard, A.H., 1853. The monuments of Nineveh (Vol 1), London, John Murray.
Luckenbill, D.D., 1926. Ancient records of Assyrian and Babylonia (Vol.1), University of Chicago Press.
Moorey, P.R.S., 1967. Some ancient metal belts: antecedents and relative, Iran 5: 83-98
Moorey, P.R.S., 1971. Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum. Clarendon Press.
Muscarella, O.W., 1988. Bronze and Iron: ancient Near Eastern artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Parpola, S., 1993. The Assyrian tree of life: tracing the origins of Jewish Monotheism and Greek Philosophy, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 52 (3):161-208.
Peck, E.H., 2002. A decorated Bronze belt in the Detroit Institute of Arts, in: E. Ehrenberg (ed.), Leaving no stones unturned: Essays on the Ancient Near East and Egypt in Honor of Donald P. Hansen, Winona Lake, IL: Eisenbrauns pp. 182–202.
Porada, E., 1950. An Assyrian Bronze disc. Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts 48 (271): 2-8.
Porada, E.,1965. The art of ancient Iran: Pre-Islamic cultures. New York, Crown Publishers (Persian translation).
Porada, E., 1972. Problems of Iranian iconography, The memorial volume of the Vth International Congress of Iranian Art & Archaeology, Tehran, Isfahan, Shiraz, 11th-18th April 1968  [Teheran] : Ministry of Culture and Arts pp. 163-182.
Russell, J.M., 2008. Thoughts on room function in the North-West Palace, In: J.E. Curtis, J. McCall, D. Collon and L. al-Gailani Werr. (eds.), new light on Nimrud: Proceedings of the Nimrud Conference, 11th-13th March 2002, London: British Institute for the Study of Iraq in association with the British Museum pp. 181-193.
Winter, I.J., 1980. A decorated breastplate from Hasanlu, Iran, R. H. Dyson (ed.), Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania Museum.
Winter, I.J., 1989. The Hasanlu gold bowl: thirty years later. Expedition 31 (2–3): 87–106.