The contact between major settlements in the Central Plateau of Iran, especially in desert areas, was not possible without having a secure communication system. In this regard, designing communication networks through constructing secure roads with halfway caravansarais in desert areas, usually without secure underground and surface water supply, needed special insights and provisions. Iranians with good knowledge on water resources and inventing developed techniques of provision, transfer, and reserving water, in addition to constructing halfway installations, in a best way established the necessary foundations for commercial, political, and economic communication between major governmental and commercial centers. Constructing caravansarais and extensive road systems in arid and dry areas in Central Plateau was possible through inventing Qanat and designing water transfer system by digging canals in stone, making ceramic pipe lines (Tanbushe), and constructing water reservoirs.
The present study is seeking to solve the basic question on the circumstances of designing the water provision systems in halfway caravansarais. For this purpose we chose Nowgonbad caravansarai in the area between Naein and Arekan. Our methodology was based on both examining sources and field observations.
In the study area we know, through sources, the existence of confident water resources near Arekan village, 15 km far from Nowgonbad caravanserai, from at least the 7th century AD. In addition, there was a sophisticated water transfer system designed and executed by use of ceramic water pipes by which water could reach the Nowgonbad caravanserai, where it was stored in reservoirs and then used by the various caravans.