Document Type : Research Paper


1 Tarbiyat Modares University

2 Department of Archaeology, Tarbait Modares University


In the religion of Ancient Elamites, various gods were worshiped. One of the most important gods was Inshushink. Despite the importance of Inshushink in the history of Elam, his name does not appear in Persepolis Fortification Tablets in Achaemenid period; therefore, the purpose of this research is to study the reasons of this absence. By examining the process of Inshushink worshiping in the history of Ancient Elam and Early Achaemenid period, and also through desk study of inscriptions and new researches of other researchers, it was concluded that Inshushink worshiping in different periods had a direct relationship with the political position of Susa in Elam at the same time. Then by considering all evidences and researches, five possible hypotheses were mentioned, including the quantity of existing texts, limited area covered by fortification texts, weak settlement of Susa in Achaemenid period, interference of Achaemenid government in Elamite rituals and combination of Inshushinak with Iranian gods. Finally, by examining the above cases, it was concluded that the absence of Inshushink in Achaemenid period is due to a set of reasons including limitation of texts, lack of urban and religious prosperity of Susa and perhaps the Achaemenids' intolerance for the god Inshushink. The last reason was either due to the revolt of the Elamites in Khuzestan plain during the first years of Darius reign or Inshushink contradiction to some of their beliefs, and each factor could be involved, solely or in combination with each other, for creating such religious situation in Achaemenid period.


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