Re-tracing copper metallurgy in the Shahdad Region (3th Millennium BC)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

Assistant Professor of Archaeology, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities

چکیده

Shahdad is located on the western side of the Lut desert in central Iranian Plateau. Shahdad has been the focus of archaeological and archaeometallurgical researches due to extensive metallurgical activities in the Bronze Age and abundant remains of copper metallurgy in the South East of Iran. The metallurgical developments have been fully justified due to the previous studies by researchers on the vast periphery area of Shahdad, and its definition as a permanent city dating back to the 3rd millennium BC. Our latest surveys on this site have led to come across the copper extraction metallurgy in a very large area because of the existence of significant evidence of ancient metallurgical remains on the field included of copper ores, moulds, crucibles, furnaces and additionally completed metallic gadgets. Potteries and slags have been observed macroscopically and microscopically in order to find particular traces of metallurgical experiences during the EBA of Shahdad. Preliminary observations supplied a new synopsis through re-tracing the ancient metallurgy in Shahdad. It is revealed that they mainly used copper sulphide (covellite), as Cu bearing ores. Three different slag types were identified regarding their color, external texture and fabrications. Potteries were associated with copper metallurgy based on their phase characterizations, which were interpreted as the artefact of a distinct metallurgical step. Potteries are very porous and tough in the texture due to their particular additives, and copper carbonate and copper oxide enrichments often occurred inside the porosities

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Re-tracing copper metallurgy in the Shahdad Region (3th Millennium BC)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasir Eskandari
  • Seyed Mohammadamin Emami
Assistant Professor of Archaeology, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities
چکیده [English]

Shahdad is located on the western side of the Lut desert in central Iranian Plateau. Shahdad has been the focus of archaeological and archaeometallurgical researches due to extensive metallurgical activities in the Bronze Age and abundant remains of copper metallurgy in the South East of Iran. The metallurgical developments have been fully justified due to the previous studies by researchers on the vast periphery area of Shahdad, and its definition as a permanent city dating back to the 3rd millennium BC. Our latest surveys on this site have led to come across the copper extraction metallurgy in a very large area because of the existence of significant evidence of ancient metallurgical remains on the field included of copper ores, moulds, crucibles, furnaces and additionally completed metallic gadgets. Potteries and slags have been observed macroscopically and microscopically in order to find particular traces of metallurgical experiences during the EBA of Shahdad. Preliminary observations supplied a new synopsis through re-tracing the ancient metallurgy in Shahdad. It is revealed that they mainly used copper sulphide (covellite), as Cu bearing ores. Three different slag types were identified regarding their color, external texture and fabrications. Potteries were associated with copper metallurgy based on their phase characterizations, which were interpreted as the artefact of a distinct metallurgical step. Potteries are very porous and tough in the texture due to their particular additives, and copper carbonate and copper oxide enrichments often occurred inside the porosities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Shahdad
  • Archaeometallurgy
  • Copper Smelting
  • Early Bronze Age
  • Craft Specialization
  • تاریخ دریافت: 15 شهریور 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 20 شهریور 1401
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 20 شهریور 1401
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 20 شهریور 1401