Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty member of Shahid Beheshti University

2 Department of Archaeology, University of Tehran

3 Department of Archaeology, Shahid beheshti University

4 Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili


One of the important subjects in the Neolithic period is the change of the subsistence economy in the societies of this period compared to the previous periods. The direct evidences of subsistence economy within the archaeological contexts are plant and animal remains. In this regard, other cultural materials such as pottery, architecture, tokens are considered as indirect evidences.

In this article we studied and analyzed the food conditions of the people living in the Neolithic site of Tepe Khaleseh based on direct and indirect evidences obtained from archaeological excavations. Analysis of the archaeobotanical assemblage has also permitted a reconstruction of subsistence economy at the site and the results presented here expand significantly on our understanding of plant and animal management in northern Iran during the Late Neolithic. in addition to animal bones and plant remains also has been used tokens, lithic, bone tools, and architectural spaces.

it seems due to the rich environmental food resources in this region and based on a self-sufficient economy during the three faze of settlement in the late Neolithic period they have evolved from a society with an equal structure in the first stage, to a society with individual ranks in the third stage, therefore, the production organization has evolved from household production to household industries.

Key Words: of subsistence economy, Late Neolithic, Tepe Khaleseh, Khorram Darreh, plant and animal remains