Investigation of the Chronological Status of the Bronze Age in East of Lorestan (Based on the Excavation of the Gariran Tepe)

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D. in Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bo Ali Sina University, Hamadan, IranArcheology, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bo Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Iranian Center for Archaeological Research, Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and Tourism Teheran, Iran.

Abstract

Eastern Lorestan is one of the regions of the Central Zagros region where the fewest number of chronological studies related to the Bronze Age have been conducted. Chronological studies of the Central Zagros are more concentrated than other areas in the Gamasiab river areas in Nahavand and Kangavar. The chronological framework of Lorestan and Gamasiab valley face many problems concerning the Bronze Age. At present, the chronology of Gamasiab and Kangavar region is related to the 1970 and 1980s and so far, the volume and quality of archaeological findings has changed in this areas. In order to clarrify of the chronological status of East of Lorestan, stratigraphic excavation have been carried out at the mound of Gariran in Aleshtar. Excavations in this area have shown that the common pottery of the Bronze Age after the beginning of the Elamite period is a well-made painted pottery style called Godin III. Meanwhile, in the Gamasiab river basin, the Early Bronze Age is known by the Yaniq style. Based on the excavations at Gariran Tepe, it seems that the common cultures in the Bronze Age of Lorestan were mostly related to the western and southern regions of Lorestan. Yaniq pottery has not been obseved widely in this area. In this study, according to the findings obtained from the excavations at Gariran Tepe, the chronology has been adjusted according to the cultural and regional realities. According to this, the Early Bronze Age (early-to-mid third millennium BCE) has contined without any interruption at Gariran Tepe after the begining of the Elamite period. In this period of pottery, which is common to the old phases of old Godin III (which in Godin’s chronology belongs to the middle period of the Bronze Age) ancient Bronze polychrome pottery. In this study, we have attempted to answer the following questions: What is the chronology of eastern Lorestan during the Bronze Age, and, how can the exploration of Gariran Tepe’s stratigraphy be corrected given the chronological defects of eastern of Lorestan.

Keywords


Algaze, G., 1993. The Uruk World System: The Dynamics of Expansion of Early Mesopotamian Civilization, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Balmaki, B., 2014. A Look at the Cultural Developments of the Nahavand Plain and the Introduction of its Key Areas During the Chalcolithic Period, in: Proceedings of the Nahavand Archaeological Conference (Commemoration of Mehdi Rahbar), Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Hamedan province, 91-110 [In Persian].
Burney, C., 1964. Eecavations at Yanik Tape Azerbaijan 1962 tird preliminary report, Irag, Vol. XXXVI, 54-61.
Davoodi, D., 2006, Survey, Identification and Register Ancient Relics Aleshtar County (Rural District Firozabad, Yosoufvand and Ghaleh Mozafari), Iran: Archive administration of cultural heritage in Louristan province (unpublished) [In Persian].
Davoodi, D., 2007, Survey, Identification and Register Ancient Relics Aleshtar County (Rural District Doab), Iran: Archive administration of cultural heritage in Louristan province (unpublished) [In Persian].
Haerinck, E. & Overlaet, B., 2002. The Chalcolithic and Bronze age in Pusht-i Kuh, Luristan (west – Iran): chronology and Mesopotamian contacts, Akkadca, No. 123, 81-163.
Haerinck, E. & Overlaet, B., 2006. Luristan excavation documents, Vol. VI, Bani Surmah an early Bronze age graveyard in Pusht-I Kuh, Luristan, Acta Iranica.
Henrickson, R. C., 1984. Godin Tape, Godin III and central western Iran 2600-1500 B.C, doctoral dissertation department of near eastern studies university of Toronto.
Henrickson, R. C., 1986. A Regional Perspective on Godin III Cultural Development in Center Western Iran, Iran, Vol. 22, 1-57.
Henrickson, R. C., 1987. The Godin III Chronology for central western Iran 2600-1400 B.C, Iranica Antiqua, Vol. 22, 33-117.
Henrickson, R. C., 2011. The Godin Period III Town, in on the high road the history of Godin Tape, Iran, Toronto, Ontario: Mazda Publishers.
Heydari, M., Beyk Mohamadi, Kh., Valad Beygi, S. & Hoseyni Nia, M., (2015). Classification and Typological Analysis of Bronze Age Pottery of Tapeh Gariran Alaeshtar, Journal of Pajhohesh-Ha-Ye Bastanshenasi Iran, Vol. 5, No. 9, 21-38 [In Persian].
Izad Panah, H., 1997, Asare Bastani Va Tarikhi Lorestan, Tehran: Society for the apprecition of cultural works and dignitaries press [In Persian].
Karimi, B., 1940. Ancient Roads and Ancient Capitals of Western Iran, Tehran: Tehran Press [In Persian].
Khaksar, A., Hemati Azandariani E., Nourozi. A., 2014. The Analysis of Yaniq Culture at Tappeh Gourab of Malayer, Based on Stratigeraphical Excavation, Journal of Pazhohesh-ha-ye Bastanshenasi Iran, Vol. 4, No.7: 47-66 [In Persian].
Mesoon, R.B. and Cooper, L., 1999. Grog, Petrology, and Early Transcaucasians at Godin Tape, British institute of Persian studes, 25-30.
Motarjem, A., Almasi, T., 2014. An Investigation of the Cultural Changes of Kangavar Plain from the Chalcolithic to the Late Bronze Age According to the Settlement Models, Journal of Pajhohesh-Ha-Ye Bastanshenasi Iran, Vol. 3, No. 5: 51-62 [In Persian].
Pazoki, N., Shadmehr, A., 2005. Iranian Artifacts Registed in the List of National Monuments, Tehran: ministry of cultural heritage, handicrafts and tourism [In Persian].
Rezvani, H., 2007. The Rescue Excavation of Patape, season two, Iran: Archive Iranian center for archaological research (unpublished) [In Persian].
Rothman, M., 2011. Migration and Resettlement: Godin Period IV, in on the high road the history of Godin Tape, Iran, Toronto, Ontario: Mazda Publishers.
Rothman, M. & Budler, V., 2011. Contact and Development in Godin Period VI, in on the high road the history of Godin Tape, Iran, Toronto, Ontario: Mazda Publishers.
Saedi Harsini, M.R., 2006. The Study and Analysis of Archaeological Data of Gamasiab River Basin in the Chalcolithic Period, thesis of Archeology PhD, Iran: Tarbiat Modares University (unpublished) [In Persian].
Sajjadi, A., 1997. Survey and Identify of Cultural and Historical Traces Aleshtar County, Iran: Archive administration of cultural heritage in Lorestan province (unpublished) [In Persian].
Saragi, N. O., 2005. Report Season Second Survey and Identification Nahavand County, Iran:Archive administration of cultural heritage in Hamedan Province (unpublished) [In Persian].
Saragi, N. O., 2010. Preliminary Report of Archeology Survey Nahavand County, journal of Farhangyan, No.37: 8-25 [In Persian].
Young, T. C., 1967. Godin Tepe, Iran, Vol. 5, 139-140.
Young, T. C., 1969, The Chronology of the Late Third and Second Millennia in Central Western Iran as Seen from Godin Tape, American journal of archaeology, Vol. 73, No. 3.
Young, T.C., Levine, L., 1974. Excavation of the Godin project, second progress report occasional papers, No. 26, art and archaeology Toronto.
Wilson, K.L., 1986. Nippur: The Definition of a Mesopotamian Gamdat Nasr Assemblage, in Gamdat Nasr Period or Regional Style, Edited by Uwe finkbeiner and Wolfgang Rollig, Germany: printed in Hamburg, 57-86.
  • Receive Date: 25 February 2019
  • Revise Date: 15 April 2019
  • Accept Date: 14 June 2021
  • First Publish Date: 14 June 2021