Alireza Koochakzaei; Hossein Ahmadi; Mohsen Mohammadi Achachluei
Leather artifacts have organic and degradable structure and some historic samples have remained from different historical periods. Studies of these scarce specimens have a great importance ...
Leather artifacts have organic and degradable structure and some historic samples have remained from different historical periods. Studies of these scarce specimens have a great importance in the conservation procedure by which the structural study of leather artifact for understanding production process and used materials can be achieved. For this purpose a historic leather bottle has been studied. The leather bottle along with other Seljuk leather artifacts have been discovered during the excavation of Qhalee Kooh-i Qaen historical site in 2006. These artifacts have a great importance due to their historical technical characteristics in the clarifying of Seljuk leather making technology. In this study hair follicle pattern and cross section (by the SEM) studies have been applied for skin type identification. Chemical spot test used to characterization of vegetable tannins, sulfate, Al and Fe in the leather specimen. Inorganic compounds have been analyzed by SEM-EDS. Moreover, characteristics of grain and corium layers extracted tannins from leather and free fats in the structure were investigated by ATR-FTIR analysis. Results showed the application of goat skin with lime depilatory which was tanned by condensed vegetable tannins. There is a probable use of Fe compounds for leather dying. Measurements showed the presence of 3.3 – 4.2 % free fat in the leather structure accompanied by white deposit on grain layer. Comparative study by ATR-FTIR analysis indicated the use of animal fat and especially sheep tallow in the manufacture of leather.